# Index

Symbols | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

# Symbols

$, Positional Parameters$libdir, Dynamic Loading$libdir/plugins, Shared Library Preloading, Description*, Select-List Items.pgpass, The Password File.pg_service.conf, The Connection Service File::, Type Casts_PG_fini, Dynamic Loading_PG_init, Dynamic Loading_PG_output_plugin_init, Initialization Function

# A

abbrev, Network Address Functions and OperatorsABORT, ABORTabs, Mathematical Functions and OperatorsACL, Privilegesaclcontains, System Information Functions and Operatorsacldefault, System Information Functions and Operatorsaclexplode, System Information Functions and Operatorsaclitem, Privilegesaclitemeq, System Information Functions and Operatorsacos, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsacosd, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsacosh, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsadministration toolsexternally maintained, Administration Toolsadminpack, adminpackadvisory lock, Advisory Locksage, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsaggregate function, Aggregate Functions, Aggregate Expressions, Aggregate Functions, User-Defined Aggregatesbuilt-in, Aggregate Functionsinvocation, Aggregate Expressionsmoving aggregate, Moving-Aggregate Modeordered set, Ordered-Set Aggregatespartial aggregation, Partial Aggregationpolymorphic, Polymorphic and Variadic Aggregatessupport functions for, Support Functions for Aggregatesuser-defined, User-Defined Aggregatesvariadic, Polymorphic and Variadic AggregatesAIX, AIXinstallation on, AIXIPC configuration, Shared Memory and Semaphoresakeys, hstore Operators and Functionsalias, Table and Column Aliases, Column Labelsfor table name in query, Joins Between Tablesin the FROM clause, Table and Column Aliasesin the select list, Column LabelsALL, GROUPING SETS, CUBE, and ROLLUP, DISTINCT, Subquery Expressions, Row and Array ComparisonsGROUP BY ALL, GROUPING SETS, CUBE, and ROLLUPSELECT ALL, DISTINCTallow_system_table_mods configuration parameter, Developer OptionsALTER AGGREGATE, ALTER AGGREGATEALTER COLLATION, ALTER COLLATIONALTER CONVERSION, ALTER CONVERSIONALTER DATABASE, ALTER DATABASEALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGES, ALTER DEFAULT PRIVILEGESALTER DOMAIN, ALTER DOMAINALTER EVENT TRIGGER, ALTER EVENT TRIGGERALTER EXTENSION, ALTER EXTENSIONALTER FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER, ALTER FOREIGN DATA WRAPPERALTER FOREIGN TABLE, ALTER FOREIGN TABLEALTER FUNCTION, ALTER FUNCTIONALTER GROUP, ALTER GROUPALTER INDEX, ALTER INDEXALTER LANGUAGE, ALTER LANGUAGEALTER LARGE OBJECT, ALTER LARGE OBJECTALTER MATERIALIZED VIEW, ALTER MATERIALIZED VIEWALTER OPERATOR, ALTER OPERATORALTER OPERATOR CLASS, ALTER OPERATOR CLASSALTER OPERATOR FAMILY, ALTER OPERATOR FAMILYALTER POLICY, ALTER POLICYALTER PROCEDURE, ALTER PROCEDUREALTER PUBLICATION, ALTER PUBLICATIONALTER ROLE, Role Attributes, ALTER ROLEALTER ROUTINE, ALTER ROUTINEALTER RULE, ALTER RULEALTER SCHEMA, ALTER SCHEMAALTER SEQUENCE, ALTER SEQUENCEALTER SERVER, ALTER SERVERALTER STATISTICS, ALTER STATISTICSALTER SUBSCRIPTION, ALTER SUBSCRIPTIONALTER SYSTEM, ALTER SYSTEMALTER TABLE, ALTER TABLEALTER TABLESPACE, ALTER TABLESPACEALTER TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATION, ALTER TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATIONALTER TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARY, ALTER TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARYALTER TEXT SEARCH PARSER, ALTER TEXT SEARCH PARSERALTER TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATE, ALTER TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATEALTER TRIGGER, ALTER TRIGGERALTER TYPE, ALTER TYPEALTER USER, ALTER USERALTER USER MAPPING, ALTER USER MAPPINGALTER VIEW, ALTER VIEWamcheck, amcheckANALYZE, Updating Planner Statistics, ANALYZEAND (operator), Logical Operatorsanonymous code blocks, DOany, Pseudo-TypesANY, Aggregate Functions, Subquery Expressions, Row and Array Comparisonsanyarray, Pseudo-Typesanycompatible, Pseudo-Typesanycompatiblearray, Pseudo-Typesanycompatiblemultirange, Pseudo-Typesanycompatiblenonarray, Pseudo-Typesanycompatiblerange, Pseudo-Typesanyelement, Pseudo-Typesanyenum, Pseudo-Typesanymultirange, Pseudo-Typesanynonarray, Pseudo-Typesanyrange, Pseudo-Typesapplicable role, applicable_rolesapplication_name configuration parameter, What to Logarbitrary precision numbers, Arbitrary Precision Numbersarchive_cleanup_command configuration parameter, Archive Recoveryarchive_command configuration parameter, Archivingarchive_mode configuration parameter, Archivingarchive_timeout configuration parameter, Archivingarea, Geometric Functions and Operatorsarmor, armor(), dearmor()array, Arraysaccessing, Accessing Arraysconstant, Array Value Inputconstructor, Array Constructorsdeclaration, Declaration of Array TypesI/O, Array Input and Output Syntaxmodifying, Modifying Arraysof user-defined type, User-Defined Typessearching, Searching in ArraysARRAY, Array Constructors, UNION, CASE, and Related Constructsdetermination of result type, UNION, CASE, and Related Constructsarray_agg, Aggregate Functions, Functionsarray_append, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_cat, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_dims, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_fill, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_length, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_lower, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_ndims, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_nulls configuration parameter, Previous PostgreSQL Versionsarray_position, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_positions, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_prepend, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_remove, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_replace, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_to_json, Processing and Creating JSON Dataarray_to_string, Array Functions and Operatorsarray_to_tsvector, Text Search Functions and Operatorsarray_upper, Array Functions and Operatorsascii, String Functions and Operatorsasin, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsasind, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsasinh, Mathematical Functions and OperatorsASSERTin PL/pgSQL, Checking Assertionsassertionsin PL/pgSQL, Checking Assertionsasynchronous commit, Asynchronous CommitAT TIME ZONE, AT TIME ZONEatan, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsatan2, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsatan2d, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsatand, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsatanh, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsauthentication_timeout configuration parameter, Authenticationauth_delay, auth_delayauth_delay.milliseconds configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto-increment (see serial)autocommitbulk-loading data, Disable Autocommitpsql, Variablesautosummarize storage parameter, Index Storage Parametersautovacuumconfiguration parameters, Automatic Vacuuminggeneral information, The Autovacuum Daemonautovacuum configuration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingautovacuum_analyze_scale_factorconfiguration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingstorage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_analyze_thresholdconfiguration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingstorage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_enabled storage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_freeze_max_ageconfiguration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingstorage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_freeze_min_age storage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_freeze_table_age storage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_max_workers configuration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingautovacuum_multixact_freeze_max_ageconfiguration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingstorage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_multixact_freeze_min_age storage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_multixact_freeze_table_age storage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_naptime configuration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingautovacuum_vacuum_cost_delayconfiguration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingstorage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_vacuum_cost_limitconfiguration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingstorage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_vacuum_insert_scale_factorconfiguration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingstorage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_vacuum_insert_thresholdconfiguration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingstorage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_vacuum_scale_factorconfiguration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingstorage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_vacuum_thresholdconfiguration parameter, Automatic Vacuumingstorage parameter, Storage Parametersautovacuum_work_mem configuration parameter, Memoryauto_explain, auto_explainauto_explain.log_analyze configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto_explain.log_buffers configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto_explain.log_format configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto_explain.log_level configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto_explain.log_min_duration configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto_explain.log_nested_statements configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto_explain.log_settings configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto_explain.log_timing configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto_explain.log_triggers configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto_explain.log_verbose configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto_explain.log_wal configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersauto_explain.sample_rate configuration parameter, Configuration Parametersavals, hstore Operators and Functionsaverage, Aggregate Functionsavg, Aggregate Functions

# B

B-Tree (see index)backend_flush_after configuration parameter, Asynchronous BehaviorBackground workers, Background Worker Processesbackslash escapes, String Constants with C-Style Escapesbackslash_quote configuration parameter, Previous PostgreSQL Versionsbacktrace_functions configuration parameter, Developer Optionsbackup, Backup Control Functions, Backup and RestoreBackup Manifest, Backup Manifest Formatbase type, The PostgreSQL Type Systembase64 format, Binary String Functions and OperatorsBASE_BACKUP, Streaming Replication Protocolbatch mode, Pipeline Modein libpq, Pipeline ModeBEGIN, BEGINBETWEEN, Comparison Functions and OperatorsBETWEEN SYMMETRIC, Comparison Functions and OperatorsBGWORKER_BACKEND_​DATABASE_CONNECTION, Background Worker ProcessesBGWORKER_SHMEM_ACCESS, Background Worker Processesbgwriter_delay configuration parameter, Background Writerbgwriter_flush_after configuration parameter, Background Writerbgwriter_lru_maxpages configuration parameter, Background Writerbgwriter_lru_multiplier configuration parameter, Background Writerbigint, Numeric Constants, Integer Typesbigserial, Serial Typesbinary data, Binary Data Types, Binary String Functions and Operatorsfunctions, Binary String Functions and Operatorsbinary stringconcatenation, Binary String Functions and Operatorsconverting to character string, Binary String Functions and Operatorslength, Binary String Functions and Operatorsbison, Requirementsbit string, Bit-String Constants, Bit String Typesconstant, Bit-String Constantsdata type, Bit String Typeslength, Bit String Functions and Operatorsbit strings, Bit String Functions and Operatorsfunctions, Bit String Functions and Operatorsbitmap scan, Combining Multiple Indexes, Planner Method Configurationbit_and, Aggregate Functionsbit_count, Binary String Functions and Operators, Bit String Functions and Operatorsbit_length, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and Operators, Bit String Functions and Operatorsbit_or, Aggregate Functionsbit_xor, Aggregate FunctionsBLOB (see large object)block_size configuration parameter, Preset Optionsbloom, bloombonjour configuration parameter, Connection Settingsbonjour_name configuration parameter, Connection SettingsBoolean, Boolean Typedata type, Boolean Typeoperators (see operators, logical)bool_and, Aggregate Functionsbool_or, Aggregate Functionsbootingstarting the server during, Starting the Database Serverbound_box, Geometric Functions and Operatorsbox, Geometric Functions and Operatorsbox (data type), BoxesBRIN (see index)brin_desummarize_range, Index Maintenance Functionsbrin_metapage_info, BRIN Functionsbrin_page_items, BRIN Functionsbrin_page_type, BRIN Functionsbrin_revmap_data, BRIN Functionsbrin_summarize_new_values, Index Maintenance Functionsbrin_summarize_range, Index Maintenance Functionsbroadcast, Network Address Functions and OperatorsBSD Authentication, BSD Authenticationbtree_gin, btree_ginbtree_gist, btree_gistbtrim, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and Operatorsbt_index_check, Functionsbt_index_parent_check, Functionsbt_metap, B-Tree Functionsbt_page_items, B-Tree Functionsbt_page_stats, B-Tree Functionsbuffering storage parameter, Index Storage Parametersbytea, Binary Data Typesbytea_output configuration parameter, Statement Behavior

# C

C, libpq — C Library, ECPG — Embedded SQL in CC++, Using C++ for ExtensibilityCALL, CALLcanceling, Canceling Queries in ProgressSQL command, Canceling Queries in Progresscardinality, Array Functions and OperatorsCASCADE, Dependency Trackingwith DROP, Dependency Trackingforeign key action, Foreign KeysCascading Replication, High Availability, Load Balancing, and ReplicationCASE, Conditional Expressions, UNION, CASE, and Related Constructsdetermination of result type, UNION, CASE, and Related Constructscase sensitivityof SQL commands, Identifiers and Key Wordscast, CREATE CASTI/O conversion, CREATE CASTcbrt, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsceil, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsceiling, Mathematical Functions and Operatorscenter, Geometric Functions and OperatorsCertificate, Certificate Authenticationchained transactions, Transaction Management, Parameters, Parametersin PL/pgSQL, Transaction Managementchar, Character Typescharacter, Character Typescharacter set, Locale and Formatting, Preset Options, Character Set Supportcharacter string, String Constants, Character Typesconcatenation, String Functions and Operatorsconstant, String Constantsconverting to binary string, Binary String Functions and Operatorsdata types, Character Typeslength, String Functions and Operatorscharacter varying, Character Typescharacter_length, String Functions and Operatorschar_length, String Functions and Operatorscheck constraint, Check ConstraintsCHECK OPTION, CREATE VIEWcheckpoint, WAL ConfigurationCHECKPOINT, CHECKPOINTcheckpoint_completion_target configuration parameter, Checkpointscheckpoint_flush_after configuration parameter, Checkpointscheckpoint_timeout configuration parameter, Checkpointscheckpoint_warning configuration parameter, Checkpointschecksums, Data Checksumscheck_function_bodies configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorchr, String Functions and Operatorscid, Object Identifier Typescidr, cidrcircle, Circles, Geometric Functions and Operatorscitext, citextclient authentication, Client Authenticationtimeout during, Authenticationclient_connection_check_interval configuration parameter, Connection Settingsclient_encoding configuration parameter, Locale and Formattingclient_min_messages configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorclock_timestamp, Date/Time Functions and OperatorsCLOSE, CLOSEclusterof databases (see database cluster)CLUSTER, CLUSTERclusterdb, clusterdbclustering, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationcluster_name configuration parameter, Process Titlecmax, System Columnscmin, System ColumnsCOALESCE, COALESCECOLLATE, Collation Expressionscollation, Collation Supportin PL/pgSQL, Collation of PL/pgSQL Variablesin SQL functions, SQL Functions with CollationsCOLLATION FOR, System Information Functions and Operatorscolor, Color Supportcolumn, Concepts, Table Basicsadding, Adding a Columnremoving, Removing a Columnrenaming, Renaming a Columnsystem column, System Columnscolumn data typechanging, Changing a Column's Data Typecolumn reference, Column Referencescol_description, System Information Functions and Operatorscomment, Commentsabout database objects, System Information Functions and Operatorsin SQL, CommentsCOMMENT, COMMENTCOMMIT, COMMITCOMMIT PREPARED, COMMIT PREPAREDcommit_delay configuration parameter, Settingscommit_siblings configuration parameter, Settingscommon table expression (see WITH)comparison, Comparison Functions and Operators, Subquery Expressionscomposite type, Row and Array Comparisonsoperators, Comparison Functions and Operatorsrow constructor, Row and Array Comparisonssubquery result row, Subquery Expressionscompiling, Building libpq Programslibpq applications, Building libpq Programscomposite type, Composite Types, The PostgreSQL Type Systemcomparison, Row and Array Comparisonsconstant, Constructing Composite Valuesconstructor, Row Constructorscomputed field, Using Composite Types in Queriescompute_query_id configuration parameter, Statistics Monitoringconcat, String Functions and Operatorsconcat_ws, String Functions and Operatorsconcurrency, Concurrency Controlconditional expression, Conditional Expressionsconfigurationof recoveryof a standby server, Archive Recoveryof the server, Server Configurationof the serverfunctions, Configuration Settings Functionsconfigure, Installation Procedureconfigure environment variables, configure Environment Variablesconfigure options, configure Optionsconfig_file configuration parameter, File Locationsconjunction, Logical Operatorsconnectby, Functions Provided, connectbyconnection service file, The Connection Service Fileconninfo, Connection Stringsconstant, Constantsconstraint, Constraintsadding, Adding a Constraintcheck, Check Constraintsexclusion, Exclusion Constraintsforeign key, Foreign Keysname, Check ConstraintsNOT NULL, Not-Null Constraintsprimary key, Primary Keysremoving, Removing a Constraintunique, Unique Constraintsconstraint exclusion, Partitioning and Constraint Exclusion, Other Planner Optionsconstraint_exclusion configuration parameter, Other Planner Optionscontainer type, The PostgreSQL Type SystemCONTINUEin PL/pgSQL, CONTINUEcontinuous archiving, Backup and Restorein standby, Continuous Archiving in Standbycontrol file, Extension Filesconvert, Binary String Functions and Operatorsconvert_from, Binary String Functions and Operatorsconvert_to, Binary String Functions and OperatorsCOPY, Populating a Table With Rows, Functions Associated with the COPY Command, COPYwith libpq, Functions Associated with the COPY Commandcorr, Aggregate Functionscorrelation, Aggregate Functionsin the query planner, Extended Statisticscos, Mathematical Functions and Operatorscosd, Mathematical Functions and Operatorscosh, Mathematical Functions and Operatorscot, Mathematical Functions and Operatorscotd, Mathematical Functions and Operatorscount, Aggregate Functionscovariancepopulation, Aggregate Functionssample, Aggregate Functionscovar_pop, Aggregate Functionscovar_samp, Aggregate Functionscovering index, Index-Only Scans and Covering Indexescpu_index_tuple_cost configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantscpu_operator_cost configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantscpu_tuple_cost configuration parameter, Planner Cost ConstantsCREATE ACCESS METHOD, CREATE ACCESS METHODCREATE AGGREGATE, CREATE AGGREGATECREATE CAST, CREATE CASTCREATE COLLATION, CREATE COLLATIONCREATE CONVERSION, CREATE CONVERSIONCREATE DATABASE, Creating a Database, CREATE DATABASECREATE DOMAIN, CREATE DOMAINCREATE EVENT TRIGGER, CREATE EVENT TRIGGERCREATE EXTENSION, CREATE EXTENSIONCREATE FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER, CREATE FOREIGN DATA WRAPPERCREATE FOREIGN TABLE, CREATE FOREIGN TABLECREATE FUNCTION, CREATE FUNCTIONCREATE GROUP, CREATE GROUPCREATE INDEX, CREATE INDEXCREATE LANGUAGE, CREATE LANGUAGECREATE MATERIALIZED VIEW, CREATE MATERIALIZED VIEWCREATE OPERATOR, CREATE OPERATORCREATE OPERATOR CLASS, CREATE OPERATOR CLASSCREATE OPERATOR FAMILY, CREATE OPERATOR FAMILYCREATE POLICY, CREATE POLICYCREATE PROCEDURE, CREATE PROCEDURECREATE PUBLICATION, CREATE PUBLICATIONCREATE ROLE, Database Roles, CREATE ROLECREATE RULE, CREATE RULECREATE SCHEMA, CREATE SCHEMACREATE SEQUENCE, CREATE SEQUENCECREATE SERVER, CREATE SERVERCREATE STATISTICS, CREATE STATISTICSCREATE SUBSCRIPTION, CREATE SUBSCRIPTIONCREATE TABLE, Creating a New Table, CREATE TABLECREATE TABLE AS, CREATE TABLE ASCREATE TABLESPACE, Tablespaces, CREATE TABLESPACECREATE TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATION, CREATE TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATIONCREATE TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARY, CREATE TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARYCREATE TEXT SEARCH PARSER, CREATE TEXT SEARCH PARSERCREATE TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATE, CREATE TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATECREATE TRANSFORM, CREATE TRANSFORMCREATE TRIGGER, CREATE TRIGGERCREATE TYPE, CREATE TYPECREATE USER, CREATE USERCREATE USER MAPPING, CREATE USER MAPPINGCREATE VIEW, CREATE VIEWcreatedb, Creating a Database, Creating a Database, createdbcreateuser, Database Roles, createuserCREATE_REPLICATION_SLOT, Streaming Replication Protocolcross compilation, Build Process Detailscross join, Joined Tablescrosstab, crosstab(text), crosstabN(text), crosstab(text, text)crypt, crypt()cstring, Pseudo-TypesCSV (Comma-Separated Values) formatin psql, Meta-Commandsctid, System ColumnsCTID, View Rules in Non-SELECT StatementsCUBE, GROUPING SETS, CUBE, and ROLLUPcube (extension), cubecume_dist, Window Functionshypothetical, Aggregate Functionscurrent_catalog, System Information Functions and Operatorscurrent_database, System Information Functions and Operatorscurrent_date, Date/Time Functions and Operatorscurrent_logfilesand the log_destination configuration parameter, Where to Logand the pg_current_logfile function, System Information Functions and Operatorscurrent_query, System Information Functions and Operatorscurrent_role, System Information Functions and Operatorscurrent_schema, System Information Functions and Operatorscurrent_schemas, System Information Functions and Operatorscurrent_setting, Configuration Settings Functionscurrent_time, Date/Time Functions and Operatorscurrent_timestamp, Date/Time Functions and Operatorscurrent_user, System Information Functions and Operatorscurrval, Sequence Manipulation Functionscursor, Cursors, CLOSE, DECLARE, EXPLAIN, FETCH, MOVECLOSE, CLOSEDECLARE, DECLAREFETCH, FETCHin PL/pgSQL, CursorsMOVE, MOVEshowing the query plan, EXPLAINcursor_tuple_fraction configuration parameter, Other Planner Optionscustom scan provider, Writing a Custom Scan Providerhandler for, Writing a Custom Scan ProviderCygwin, Cygwininstallation on, Cygwin

# D

data area (see database cluster)data partitioning, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationdata type, Data Types, Numeric Types, Enumerated Types, Domain Types, Type Conversion, The PostgreSQL Type System, The PostgreSQL Type System, The PostgreSQL Type System, Polymorphic Types, Base Types in C-Language Functions, User-Defined Typesbase, The PostgreSQL Type Systemcategory, Overviewcomposite, The PostgreSQL Type Systemconstant, Constants of Other Typescontainer, The PostgreSQL Type Systemconversion, Type Conversiondomain, Domain Typesenumerated (enum), Enumerated Typesinternal organization, Base Types in C-Language Functionsnumeric, Numeric Typespolymorphic, Polymorphic Typestype cast, Type Castsuser-defined, User-Defined Typesdatabase, Creating a Database, Managing Databasescreating, Creating a Databaseprivilege to create, Role Attributesdatabase activity, Monitoring Database Activitymonitoring, Monitoring Database Activitydatabase cluster, Concepts, Creating a Database Clusterdata_checksums configuration parameter, Preset Optionsdata_directory configuration parameter, File Locationsdata_directory_mode configuration parameter, Preset Optionsdata_sync_retry configuration parameter, Error Handlingdate, Date/Time Types, Datesconstants, Special Valuescurrent, Current Date/Timeoutput format, Date/Time Output(see also formatting)DateStyle configuration parameter, Locale and Formattingdate_bin, date_bindate_part, Date/Time Functions and Operators, EXTRACT, date_partdate_trunc, Date/Time Functions and Operators, date_truncdblink, dblink, dblinkdblink_build_sql_delete, dblink_build_sql_deletedblink_build_sql_insert, dblink_build_sql_insertdblink_build_sql_update, dblink_build_sql_updatedblink_cancel_query, dblink_cancel_querydblink_close, dblink_closedblink_connect, dblink_connectdblink_connect_u, dblink_connect_udblink_disconnect, dblink_disconnectdblink_error_message, dblink_error_messagedblink_exec, dblink_execdblink_fetch, dblink_fetchdblink_get_connections, dblink_get_connectionsdblink_get_notify, dblink_get_notifydblink_get_pkey, dblink_get_pkeydblink_get_result, dblink_get_resultdblink_is_busy, dblink_is_busydblink_open, dblink_opendblink_send_query, dblink_send_querydb_user_namespace configuration parameter, Authenticationdeadlock, Deadlockstimeout during, Lock Managementdeadlock_timeout configuration parameter, Lock ManagementDEALLOCATE, DEALLOCATEdearmor, armor(), dearmor()debug_assertions configuration parameter, Preset Optionsdebug_deadlocks configuration parameter, Developer Optionsdebug_discard_caches configuration parameter, Developer Optionsdebug_pretty_print configuration parameter, What to Logdebug_print_parse configuration parameter, What to Logdebug_print_plan configuration parameter, What to Logdebug_print_rewritten configuration parameter, What to Logdecimal (see numeric)DECLARE, DECLAREdecode, Binary String Functions and Operatorsdecode_byteain PL/Perl, Utility Functions in PL/Perldecrypt, Raw Encryption Functionsdecrypt_iv, Raw Encryption Functionsdeduplicate_items storage parameter, Index Storage Parametersdefault value, Default Valueschanging, Changing a Column's Default Valuedefault-roles, Default Roles Renamed to Predefined Rolesdefault_statistics_target configuration parameter, Other Planner Optionsdefault_tablespace configuration parameter, Statement Behaviordefault_table_access_method configuration parameter, Statement Behaviordefault_text_search_config configuration parameter, Locale and Formattingdefault_toast_compression configuration parameter, Statement Behaviordefault_transaction_deferrable configuration parameter, Statement Behaviordefault_transaction_isolation configuration parameter, Statement Behaviordefault_transaction_read_only configuration parameter, Statement Behaviordeferrable transaction, Statement Behaviorsetting, SET TRANSACTIONsetting default, Statement Behaviordefined, hstore Operators and Functionsdegrees, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsdelay, Delaying ExecutionDELETE, Deletions, Deleting Data, Returning Data from Modified Rows, DELETERETURNING, Returning Data from Modified Rowsdelete, hstore Operators and Functionsdeleting, Deleting Datadense_rank, Window Functionshypothetical, Aggregate Functionsdiagonal, Geometric Functions and Operatorsdiameter, Geometric Functions and Operatorsdict_int, dict_intdict_xsyn, dict_xsyndifference, Soundexdigest, digest()dirty read, Transaction IsolationDISCARD, DISCARDdisjunction, Logical Operatorsdisk drive, WAL Internalsdisk space, Recovering Disk Spacedisk usage, Determining Disk UsageDISTINCT, Querying a Table, GROUPING SETS, CUBE, and ROLLUP, DISTINCTGROUP BY DISTINCT, GROUPING SETS, CUBE, and ROLLUPSELECT DISTINCT, DISTINCTdiv, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsdmetaphone, Double Metaphonedmetaphone_alt, Double MetaphoneDO, DOdocument, What Is a Document?text search, What Is a Document?dollar quoting, Dollar-Quoted String Constantsdomain, Domain Typesdouble precision, Floating-Point TypesDROP ACCESS METHOD, DROP ACCESS METHODDROP AGGREGATE, DROP AGGREGATEDROP CAST, DROP CASTDROP COLLATION, DROP COLLATIONDROP CONVERSION, DROP CONVERSIONDROP DATABASE, Destroying a Database, DROP DATABASEDROP DOMAIN, DROP DOMAINDROP EVENT TRIGGER, DROP EVENT TRIGGERDROP EXTENSION, DROP EXTENSIONDROP FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER, DROP FOREIGN DATA WRAPPERDROP FOREIGN TABLE, DROP FOREIGN TABLEDROP FUNCTION, DROP FUNCTIONDROP GROUP, DROP GROUPDROP INDEX, DROP INDEXDROP LANGUAGE, DROP LANGUAGEDROP MATERIALIZED VIEW, DROP MATERIALIZED VIEWDROP OPERATOR, DROP OPERATORDROP OPERATOR CLASS, DROP OPERATOR CLASSDROP OPERATOR FAMILY, DROP OPERATOR FAMILYDROP OWNED, DROP OWNEDDROP POLICY, DROP POLICYDROP PROCEDURE, DROP PROCEDUREDROP PUBLICATION, DROP PUBLICATIONDROP ROLE, Database Roles, DROP ROLEDROP ROUTINE, DROP ROUTINEDROP RULE, DROP RULEDROP SCHEMA, DROP SCHEMADROP SEQUENCE, DROP SEQUENCEDROP SERVER, DROP SERVERDROP STATISTICS, DROP STATISTICSDROP SUBSCRIPTION, DROP SUBSCRIPTIONDROP TABLE, Creating a New Table, DROP TABLEDROP TABLESPACE, DROP TABLESPACEDROP TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATION, DROP TEXT SEARCH CONFIGURATIONDROP TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARY, DROP TEXT SEARCH DICTIONARYDROP TEXT SEARCH PARSER, DROP TEXT SEARCH PARSERDROP TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATE, DROP TEXT SEARCH TEMPLATEDROP TRANSFORM, DROP TRANSFORMDROP TRIGGER, DROP TRIGGERDROP TYPE, DROP TYPEDROP USER, DROP USERDROP USER MAPPING, DROP USER MAPPINGDROP VIEW, DROP VIEWdropdb, Destroying a Database, dropdbdropuser, Database Roles, dropuserDROP_REPLICATION_SLOT, Streaming Replication ProtocolDTD, Creating XML ValuesDTrace, Developer Options, Dynamic Tracingduplicate, Querying a Tableduplicates, DISTINCTdynamic loading, Other Defaults, Dynamic Loadingdynamic_library_path, Dynamic Loadingdynamic_library_path configuration parameter, Other Defaultsdynamic_shared_memory_type configuration parameter, Memory

# E

each, hstore Operators and Functionsearth, Cube-Based Earth Distancesearthdistance, earthdistanceearth_box, Cube-Based Earth Distancesearth_distance, Cube-Based Earth DistancesECPG, ECPG — Embedded SQL in Cecpg, ecpgeffective_cache_size configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantseffective_io_concurrency configuration parameter, Asynchronous Behaviorelog, Reporting Errors Within the Serverin PL/Perl, Utility Functions in PL/Perlin PL/Python, Utility Functionsin PL/Tcl, Database Access from PL/Tclembedded SQL, ECPG — Embedded SQL in Cin C, ECPG — Embedded SQL in Cenabled role, enabled_rolesenable_async_append configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_bitmapscan configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_gathermerge configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_hashagg configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_hashjoin configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_incremental_sort configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_indexonlyscan configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_indexscan configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_material configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_memoize configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_mergejoin configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_nestloop configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_parallel_append configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_parallel_hash configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_partitionwise_aggregate configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_partitionwise_join configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_partition_pruning configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_seqscan configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_sort configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationenable_tidscan configuration parameter, Planner Method Configurationencode, Binary String Functions and Operatorsencode_array_constructorin PL/Perl, Utility Functions in PL/Perlencode_array_literalin PL/Perl, Utility Functions in PL/Perlencode_byteain PL/Perl, Utility Functions in PL/Perlencode_typed_literalin PL/Perl, Utility Functions in PL/Perlencrypt, Raw Encryption Functionsencryption, Encryption Options, pgcryptofor specific columns, pgcryptoencrypt_iv, Raw Encryption FunctionsEND, ENDenumerated types, Enumerated Typesenum_first, Enum Support Functionsenum_last, Enum Support Functionsenum_range, Enum Support Functionsenvironment variable, Environment Variablesephemeral named relationregistering with SPI, SPI_register_relation, SPI_register_trigger_dataunregistering from SPI, SPI_unregister_relationereport, Reporting Errors Within the Servererror codes, PostgreSQL Error Codeslibpq, Main Functionslist of, PostgreSQL Error Codeserror message, Connection Status Functionsescape format, Binary String Functions and Operatorsescape string syntax, String Constants with C-Style Escapesescape_string_warning configuration parameter, Previous PostgreSQL Versionsescaping strings, Escaping Strings for Inclusion in SQL Commandsin libpq, Escaping Strings for Inclusion in SQL Commandsevent log, Registering Event Log on Windowsevent log, Registering Event Log on Windowsevent trigger, Event Triggers, Writing Event Trigger Functions in Cin C, Writing Event Trigger Functions in Cin PL/Tcl, Event Trigger Functions in PL/Tclevent_source configuration parameter, Where to Logevent_trigger, Pseudo-Typesevery, Aggregate FunctionsEXCEPT, Combining Queries (UNION, INTERSECT, EXCEPT)exceptionsin PL/pgSQL, Trapping Errorsin PL/Tcl, Error Handling in PL/Tclexclusion constraint, Exclusion ConstraintsEXECUTE, EXECUTEexist, hstore Operators and FunctionsEXISTS, Subquery ExpressionsEXITin PL/pgSQL, EXITexit_on_error configuration parameter, Error Handlingexp, Mathematical Functions and OperatorsEXPLAIN, Using EXPLAIN, EXPLAINexpression, Value Expressionsorder of evaluation, Expression Evaluation Rulessyntax, Value Expressionsextending SQL, Extending SQLextension, Packaging Related Objects into an Extensionexternally maintained, Extensionsexternal_pid_file configuration parameter, File Locationsextract, Date/Time Functions and Operators, EXTRACT, date_partextra_float_digits configuration parameter, Locale and Formatting

# F

factorial, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsfailover, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationfalse, Boolean Typefamily, Network Address Functions and Operatorsfast path, The Fast-Path Interfacefastupdate storage parameter, Index Storage Parametersfdw_handler, Pseudo-TypesFETCH, FETCHfieldcomputed, Using Composite Types in Queriesfield selection, Field Selectionfile system mount points, Use of Secondary File Systemsfile_fdw, file_fdwfillfactor storage parameter, Index Storage Parameters, Storage ParametersFILTER, Aggregate Expressionsfirst_value, Window Functionsflex, Requirementsfloat4 (see real)float8 (see double precision)floating point, Floating-Point Typesfloating-pointdisplay, Locale and Formattingfloor, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsforce_parallel_mode configuration parameter, Developer Optionsforeign data, Foreign Dataforeign data wrapper, Writing a Foreign Data Wrapperhandler for, Writing a Foreign Data Wrapperforeign key, Foreign Keys, Foreign Keysself-referential, Foreign Keysforeign table, Foreign Dataformat, String Functions and Operators, formatuse in PL/pgSQL, Executing Dynamic Commandsformatting, Data Type Formatting Functionsformat_type, System Information Functions and OperatorsFree Space Map, Free Space MapFreeBSDIPC configuration, Shared Memory and Semaphoresshared library, Compiling and Linking Dynamically-Loaded Functionsstart script, Starting the Database Serverfrom_collapse_limit configuration parameter, Other Planner OptionsFSM (see Free Space Map)fsm_page_contents, General Functionsfsync configuration parameter, Settingsfull text search, Text Search Types, Text Search Types, Full Text Searchdata types, Text Search Typesfunctions and operators, Text Search Typesfull_page_writes configuration parameter, Settingsfunction, Table Functions, Functions and Operators, Statistics Information Functions, Functions, Polymorphic Types, User-Defined Functions, Query Language (SQL) Functions, Internal Functions, C-Language Functionsdefault values for arguments, SQL Functions with Default Values for Argumentsin the FROM clause, Table Functionsinternal, Internal Functionsinvocation, Function Callsmixed notation, Using Mixed Notationnamed argument, Arguments for SQL Functionsnamed notation, Using Named Notationoutput parameter, SQL Functions with Output Parameterspolymorphic, Polymorphic Typespositional notation, Using Positional NotationRETURNS TABLE, SQL Functions Returning TABLEstatistics, Statistics Information Functionstype resolution in an invocation, Functionsuser-defined, User-Defined Functions, Query Language (SQL) Functions, C-Language Functionsin C, C-Language Functionsin SQL, Query Language (SQL) Functionsvariadic, SQL Functions with Variable Numbers of Argumentswith SETOF, SQL Functions Returning Setsfunctional dependency, The GROUP BY and HAVING Clausesfuzzystrmatch, fuzzystrmatch

# G

gcd, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsgc_to_sec, Cube-Based Earth Distancesgenerated column, Generated Columns, Parameters, Parametersin triggers, Overview of Trigger Behaviorgenerate_series, Set Returning Functionsgenerate_subscripts, Set Returning Functionsgenetic query optimization, Genetic Query Optimizergen_random_bytes, Random-Data Functionsgen_random_uuid, UUID Functions, Random-Data Functionsgen_salt, gen_salt()GEQO (see genetic query optimization)geqo configuration parameter, Genetic Query Optimizergeqo_effort configuration parameter, Genetic Query Optimizergeqo_generations configuration parameter, Genetic Query Optimizergeqo_pool_size configuration parameter, Genetic Query Optimizergeqo_seed configuration parameter, Genetic Query Optimizergeqo_selection_bias configuration parameter, Genetic Query Optimizergeqo_threshold configuration parameter, Genetic Query Optimizerget_bit, Binary String Functions and Operators, Bit String Functions and Operatorsget_byte, Binary String Functions and Operatorsget_current_ts_config, Text Search Functions and Operatorsget_raw_page, General FunctionsGIN (see index)gin_clean_pending_list, Index Maintenance Functionsgin_fuzzy_search_limit configuration parameter, Other Defaultsgin_leafpage_items, GIN Functionsgin_metapage_info, GIN Functionsgin_page_opaque_info, GIN Functionsgin_pending_list_limitconfiguration parameter, Statement Behaviorstorage parameter, Index Storage ParametersGiST (see index)gist_page_items, GiST Functionsgist_page_items_bytea, GiST Functionsgist_page_opaque_info, GiST Functionsglobal data, Global Data in PL/Tclin PL/Python, Sharing Datain PL/Tcl, Global Data in PL/TclGRANT, Privileges, GRANTGREATEST, GREATEST and LEAST, UNION, CASE, and Related Constructsdetermination of result type, UNION, CASE, and Related ConstructsGregorian calendar, History of UnitsGROUP BY, Aggregate Functions, The GROUP BY and HAVING Clausesgrouping, The GROUP BY and HAVING ClausesGROUPING, Aggregate FunctionsGROUPING SETS, GROUPING SETS, CUBE, and ROLLUPgssapi, Secure TCP/IP Connections with GSSAPI EncryptionGSSAPI, GSSAPI Authenticationwith libpq, Parameter Key WordsGUID, UUID Type

# H

hash (see index)hash_bitmap_info, Hash Functionshash_mem_multiplier configuration parameter, Memoryhash_metapage_info, Hash Functionshash_page_items, Hash Functionshash_page_stats, Hash Functionshash_page_type, Hash Functionshas_any_column_privilege, System Information Functions and Operatorshas_column_privilege, System Information Functions and Operatorshas_database_privilege, System Information Functions and Operatorshas_foreign_data_wrapper_privilege, System Information Functions and Operatorshas_function_privilege, System Information Functions and Operatorshas_language_privilege, System Information Functions and Operatorshas_schema_privilege, System Information Functions and Operatorshas_sequence_privilege, System Information Functions and Operatorshas_server_privilege, System Information Functions and Operatorshas_tablespace_privilege, System Information Functions and Operatorshas_table_privilege, System Information Functions and Operatorshas_type_privilege, System Information Functions and OperatorsHAVING, Aggregate Functions, The GROUP BY and HAVING Clauseshba_file configuration parameter, File Locationsheap_page_items, Heap Functionsheap_page_item_attrs, Heap Functionsheap_tuple_infomask_flags, Heap Functionsheight, Geometric Functions and Operatorshex format, Binary String Functions and Operatorshierarchical database, Conceptshigh availability, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationhistory, A Brief History of PostgreSQLof PostgreSQL, A Brief History of PostgreSQLhmac, hmac()host, Network Address Functions and Operatorshost name, Parameter Key Wordshostmask, Network Address Functions and OperatorsHot Standby, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationhot_standby configuration parameter, Standby Servershot_standby_feedback configuration parameter, Standby ServersHP-UXIPC configuration, Shared Memory and Semaphoresshared library, Compiling and Linking Dynamically-Loaded Functionshstore, hstore, hstore Operators and Functionshstore_to_array, hstore Operators and Functionshstore_to_json, hstore Operators and Functionshstore_to_jsonb, hstore Operators and Functionshstore_to_jsonb_loose, hstore Operators and Functionshstore_to_json_loose, hstore Operators and Functionshstore_to_matrix, hstore Operators and Functionshuge_pages configuration parameter, Memoryhuge_page_size configuration parameter, Memoryhypothetical-set aggregatebuilt-in, Aggregate Functions

# I

icount, intarray Functions and OperatorsICU, PostgreSQL Features, Managing Collations, Parametersident, Ident Authenticationidentifier, Identifiers and Key Wordslength, Identifiers and Key Wordssyntax of, Identifiers and Key WordsIDENTIFY_SYSTEM, Streaming Replication Protocolident_file configuration parameter, File Locationsidle_in_transaction_session_timeout configuration parameter, Statement Behavioridle_session_timeout configuration parameter, Statement Behavioridx, intarray Functions and OperatorsIFNULL, COALESCEignore_checksum_failure configuration parameter, Developer Optionsignore_invalid_pages configuration parameter, Developer Optionsignore_system_indexes configuration parameter, Developer OptionsIMMUTABLE, Function Volatility CategoriesIMPORT FOREIGN SCHEMA, IMPORT FOREIGN SCHEMAIN, Subquery Expressions, Row and Array ComparisonsINCLUDEin index definitions, Index-Only Scans and Covering Indexesincludein configuration file, Managing Configuration File Contentsinclude_dirin configuration file, Managing Configuration File Contentsinclude_if_existsin configuration file, Managing Configuration File Contentsindex, Indexes, Multicolumn Indexes, Indexes and ORDER BY, Combining Multiple Indexes, Unique Indexes, Indexes on Expressions, Partial Indexes, Index-Only Scans and Covering Indexes, Index-Only Scans and Covering Indexes, Examining Index Usage, GIN and GiST Index Types, GIN and GiST Index Types, Locking and Indexes, Interfacing Extensions to Indexes, Building Indexes Concurrently, Rebuilding Indexes Concurrently, Operators and Functionsand ORDER BY, Indexes and ORDER BYB-Tree, B-Tree, B-Tree IndexesBRIN, BRIN, BRIN Indexesbuilding concurrently, Building Indexes Concurrentlycombining multiple indexes, Combining Multiple Indexescovering, Index-Only Scans and Covering Indexesexamining usage, Examining Index Usageon expressions, Indexes on Expressionsfor user-defined data type, Interfacing Extensions to IndexesGIN, GIN, GIN and GiST Index Types, GIN Indexestext search, GIN and GiST Index TypesGiST, GiST, GIN and GiST Index Types, GiST Indexestext search, GIN and GiST Index Typeshash, HashHash, Hash Indexesindex-only scans, Index-Only Scans and Covering Indexeslocks, Locking and Indexesmulticolumn, Multicolumn Indexespartial, Partial Indexesrebuilding concurrently, Rebuilding Indexes ConcurrentlySP-GiST, SP-GiST, SP-GiST Indexesunique, Unique IndexesIndex Access Method, Index Access Method Interface Definitionindex scan, Planner Method Configurationindex-only scan, Index-Only Scans and Covering IndexesindexamIndex Access Method, Index Access Method Interface Definitionindex_am_handler, Pseudo-Typesinet (data type), inetinet_client_addr, System Information Functions and Operatorsinet_client_port, System Information Functions and Operatorsinet_merge, Network Address Functions and Operatorsinet_same_family, Network Address Functions and Operatorsinet_server_addr, System Information Functions and Operatorsinet_server_port, System Information Functions and Operatorsinfinityfloating point, Floating-Point Typesnumeric (data type), Arbitrary Precision Numbersinformation schema, The Information Schemainheritance, Inheritance, Inheritanceinitcap, String Functions and Operatorsinitdb, Creating a Database Cluster, initdbInitialization Fork, The Initialization Forkinput function, User-Defined TypesINSERT, Populating a Table With Rows, Inserting Data, Returning Data from Modified Rows, INSERTRETURNING, Returning Data from Modified Rowsinserting, Inserting Datainstallation, Installation from Source Codebinaries, Installation from Binarieson Windows, Installation from Source Code on Windowsinstr function, Appendixint2 (see smallint)int4 (see integer)int8 (see bigint)intagg, intaggintarray, intarrayinteger, Numeric Constants, Integer Typesinteger_datetimes configuration parameter, Preset Optionsinterfacesexternally maintained, Client Interfacesinternal, Pseudo-TypesINTERSECT, Combining Queries (UNION, INTERSECT, EXCEPT)interval, Date/Time Types, Interval Inputoutput format, Interval Output(see also formatting)IntervalStyle configuration parameter, Locale and Formattingintset, intarray Functions and Operatorsint_array_aggregate, Functionsint_array_enum, Functionsinverse distribution, Aggregate Functionsin_hot_standby configuration parameter, Preset Optionsin_range support functions, B-Tree Support FunctionsIS DISTINCT FROM, Comparison Functions and Operators, Row and Array ComparisonsIS DOCUMENT, IS DOCUMENTIS FALSE, Comparison Functions and OperatorsIS NOT DISTINCT FROM, Comparison Functions and Operators, Row and Array ComparisonsIS NOT DOCUMENT, IS NOT DOCUMENTIS NOT FALSE, Comparison Functions and OperatorsIS NOT NULL, Comparison Functions and OperatorsIS NOT TRUE, Comparison Functions and OperatorsIS NOT UNKNOWN, Comparison Functions and OperatorsIS NULL, Comparison Functions and Operators, Platform and Client CompatibilityIS TRUE, Comparison Functions and OperatorsIS UNKNOWN, Comparison Functions and Operatorsisclosed, Geometric Functions and Operatorsisempty, Range/Multirange Functions and Operatorsisfinite, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsisn, isnISNULL, Comparison Functions and Operatorsisn_weak, Functions and Operatorsisopen, Geometric Functions and Operatorsis_array_refin PL/Perl, Utility Functions in PL/Perlis_valid, Functions and Operators

# J

JIT, Just-in-Time Compilation (JIT)jit configuration parameter, Other Planner Optionsjit_above_cost configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantsjit_debugging_support configuration parameter, Developer Optionsjit_dump_bitcode configuration parameter, Developer Optionsjit_expressions configuration parameter, Developer Optionsjit_inline_above_cost configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantsjit_optimize_above_cost configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantsjit_profiling_support configuration parameter, Developer Optionsjit_provider configuration parameter, Shared Library Preloadingjit_tuple_deforming configuration parameter, Developer Optionsjoin, Joins Between Tables, Joined Tables, Controlling the Planner with Explicit JOIN Clausescontrolling the order, Controlling the Planner with Explicit JOIN Clausescross, Joined Tablesleft, Joined Tablesnatural, Joined Tablesouter, Joins Between Tables, Joined Tablesright, Joined Tablesself, Joins Between Tablesjoin_collapse_limit configuration parameter, Other Planner OptionsJSON, JSON Types, JSON Functions and Operatorsfunctions and operators, JSON Functions and OperatorsJSONB, JSON Typesjsonbcontainment, jsonb Containment and Existenceexistence, jsonb Containment and Existenceindexes on, jsonb Indexingjsonb_agg, Aggregate Functionsjsonb_array_elements, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_array_elements_text, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_array_length, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_build_array, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_build_object, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_each, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_each_text, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_extract_path, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_extract_path_text, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_insert, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_object, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_object_agg, Aggregate Functionsjsonb_object_keys, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_path_exists, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_path_exists_tz, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_path_match, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_path_match_tz, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_path_query, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_path_query_array, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_path_query_array_tz, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_path_query_first, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_path_query_first_tz, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_path_query_tz, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_populate_record, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_populate_recordset, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_pretty, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_set, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_set_lax, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_strip_nulls, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_to_record, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_to_recordset, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonb_to_tsvector, Text Search Functions and Operatorsjsonb_typeof, Processing and Creating JSON Datajsonpath, jsonpath Typejson_agg, Aggregate Functionsjson_array_elements, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_array_elements_text, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_array_length, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_build_array, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_build_object, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_each, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_each_text, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_extract_path, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_extract_path_text, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_object, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_object_agg, Aggregate Functionsjson_object_keys, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_populate_record, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_populate_recordset, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_strip_nulls, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_to_record, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_to_recordset, Processing and Creating JSON Datajson_to_tsvector, Text Search Functions and Operatorsjson_typeof, Processing and Creating JSON DataJulian date, Julian DatesJust-In-Time compilation (see JIT)justify_days, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsjustify_hours, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsjustify_interval, Date/Time Functions and Operators

# K

key word, Identifiers and Key Words, SQL Key Wordslist of, SQL Key Wordssyntax of, Identifiers and Key Wordskrb_caseins_users configuration parameter, Authenticationkrb_server_keyfile configuration parameter, Authentication

# L

label (see alias)lag, Window Functionslanguage_handler, Pseudo-Typeslarge object, Large Objectslastval, Sequence Manipulation Functionslast_value, Window FunctionsLATERAL, LATERAL Subqueriesin the FROM clause, LATERAL Subquerieslatitude, Cube-Based Earth Distanceslca, Operators and Functionslcm, Mathematical Functions and Operatorslc_collate configuration parameter, Preset Optionslc_ctype configuration parameter, Preset Optionslc_messages configuration parameter, Locale and Formattinglc_monetary configuration parameter, Locale and Formattinglc_numeric configuration parameter, Locale and Formattinglc_time configuration parameter, Locale and FormattingLDAP, PostgreSQL Features, LDAP AuthenticationLDAP connection parameter lookup, LDAP Lookup of Connection Parametersldconfig, Shared Librarieslead, Window FunctionsLEAST, GREATEST and LEAST, UNION, CASE, and Related Constructsdetermination of result type, UNION, CASE, and Related Constructsleft, String Functions and Operatorsleft join, Joined Tableslength, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and Operators, Bit String Functions and Operators, Geometric Functions and Operators, Text Search Functions and Operatorsof a binary string (see binary strings, length)of a character string (see character string, length)length(tsvector), Manipulating Documentslevenshtein, Levenshteinlevenshtein_less_equal, Levenshteinlex, Requirementslibedit, Requirementslibperl, Requirementslibpq, libpq — C Library, Pipeline Mode, Retrieving Query Results Row-by-Rowpipeline mode, Pipeline Modesingle-row mode, Retrieving Query Results Row-by-Rowlibpq-fe.h, libpq — C Library, Connection Status Functionslibpq-int.h, Connection Status Functionslibpython, Requirementslibrary finalization function, Dynamic Loadinglibrary initialization function, Dynamic LoadingLIKE, LIKEand locales, BehaviorLIKE_REGEX, Differences from XQuery (LIKE_REGEX), SQL/JSON Regular Expressionsin SQL/JSON, SQL/JSON Regular ExpressionsLIMIT, LIMIT and OFFSETline, Lines, Geometric Functions and Operatorsline segment, Line Segmentslinear regression, Aggregate FunctionsLinuxIPC configuration, Shared Memory and Semaphoresshared library, Compiling and Linking Dynamically-Loaded Functionsstart script, Starting the Database ServerLISTEN, LISTENlisten_addresses configuration parameter, Connection Settingsllvm-config, PostgreSQL Featuresll_to_earth, Cube-Based Earth Distancesln, Mathematical Functions and Operatorslo, loLOAD, LOADload balancing, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationlocale, Creating a Database Cluster, Locale Supportlocaltime, Date/Time Functions and Operatorslocaltimestamp, Date/Time Functions and Operatorslocal_preload_libraries configuration parameter, Shared Library Preloadinglock, Explicit Locking, Advisory Locks, Viewing Locksadvisory, Advisory Locksmonitoring, Viewing LocksLOCK, Table-Level Locks, LOCKlock_timeout configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorlog, Mathematical Functions and Operatorslog shipping, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationlog10, Mathematical Functions and OperatorsLoggingcurrent_logfiles file and the pg_current_logfile function, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_current_logfile function, System Information Functions and Operatorslogging_collector configuration parameter, Where to LogLogical Decoding, Logical Decoding, Logical Decodinglogical_decoding_work_mem configuration parameter, Memorylogin privilege, Role Attributeslog_autovacuum_min_durationconfiguration parameter, What to Logstorage parameter, Storage Parameterslog_btree_build_stats configuration parameter, Developer Optionslog_checkpoints configuration parameter, What to Loglog_connections configuration parameter, What to Loglog_destination configuration parameter, Where to Loglog_directory configuration parameter, Where to Loglog_disconnections configuration parameter, What to Loglog_duration configuration parameter, What to Loglog_error_verbosity configuration parameter, What to Loglog_executor_stats configuration parameter, Statistics Monitoringlog_filename configuration parameter, Where to Loglog_file_mode configuration parameter, Where to Loglog_hostname configuration parameter, What to Loglog_line_prefix configuration parameter, What to Loglog_lock_waits configuration parameter, What to Loglog_min_duration_sample configuration parameter, When to Loglog_min_duration_statement configuration parameter, When to Loglog_min_error_statement configuration parameter, When to Loglog_min_messages configuration parameter, When to Loglog_parameter_max_length configuration parameter, What to Loglog_parameter_max_length_on_error configuration parameter, What to Loglog_parser_stats configuration parameter, Statistics Monitoringlog_planner_stats configuration parameter, Statistics Monitoringlog_recovery_conflict_waits configuration parameter, What to Loglog_replication_commands configuration parameter, What to Loglog_rotation_age configuration parameter, Where to Loglog_rotation_size configuration parameter, Where to Loglog_statement configuration parameter, What to Loglog_statement_sample_rate configuration parameter, When to Loglog_statement_stats configuration parameter, Statistics Monitoringlog_temp_files configuration parameter, What to Loglog_timezone configuration parameter, What to Loglog_transaction_sample_rate configuration parameter, When to Loglog_truncate_on_rotation configuration parameter, Where to Loglongitude, Cube-Based Earth Distanceslooks_like_numberin PL/Perl, Utility Functions in PL/Perlloop, Simple Loopsin PL/pgSQL, Simple Loopslower, String Functions and Operators, Range/Multirange Functions and Operatorsand locales, Behaviorlower_inc, Range/Multirange Functions and Operatorslower_inf, Range/Multirange Functions and Operatorslo_close, Closing a Large Object Descriptorlo_compat_privileges configuration parameter, Previous PostgreSQL Versionslo_creat, Creating a Large Object, Server-Side Functionslo_create, Creating a Large Objectlo_export, Exporting a Large Object, Server-Side Functionslo_from_bytea, Server-Side Functionslo_get, Server-Side Functionslo_import, Importing a Large Object, Server-Side Functionslo_import_with_oid, Importing a Large Objectlo_lseek, Seeking in a Large Objectlo_lseek64, Seeking in a Large Objectlo_open, Opening an Existing Large Objectlo_put, Server-Side Functionslo_read, Reading Data from a Large Objectlo_tell, Obtaining the Seek Position of a Large Objectlo_tell64, Obtaining the Seek Position of a Large Objectlo_truncate, Truncating a Large Objectlo_truncate64, Truncating a Large Objectlo_unlink, Removing a Large Object, Server-Side Functionslo_write, Writing Data to a Large Objectlpad, String Functions and Operatorslseg, Line Segments, Geometric Functions and OperatorsLSN, WAL Internalsltree, ltreeltree2text, Operators and Functionsltrim, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and Operators

# M

MAC address (see macaddr)MAC address (EUI-64 format) (see macaddr)macaddr (data type), macaddrmacaddr8 (data type), macaddr8macaddr8_set7bit, Network Address Functions and OperatorsmacOS, macOSinstallation on, macOSIPC configuration, Shared Memory and Semaphoresshared library, Compiling and Linking Dynamically-Loaded Functionsmagic block, Dynamic Loadingmaintenance, Routine Database Maintenance Tasksmaintenance_io_concurrency configuration parameter, Asynchronous Behaviormaintenance_work_mem configuration parameter, Memorymake, Requirementsmakeaclitem, System Information Functions and Operatorsmake_date, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsmake_interval, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsmake_time, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsmake_timestamp, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsmake_timestamptz, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsmake_valid, Functions and OperatorsMANPATH, Environment Variablesmasklen, Network Address Functions and Operatorsmaterialized view, Materialized Viewsimplementation through rules, Materialized Viewsmaterialized views, pg_matviewsmax, Aggregate Functionsmax_connections configuration parameter, Connection Settingsmax_files_per_process configuration parameter, Kernel Resource Usagemax_function_args configuration parameter, Preset Optionsmax_identifier_length configuration parameter, Preset Optionsmax_index_keys configuration parameter, Preset Optionsmax_locks_per_transaction configuration parameter, Lock Managementmax_logical_replication_workers configuration parameter, Subscribersmax_parallel_maintenance_workers configuration parameter, Asynchronous Behaviormax_parallel_workers configuration parameter, Asynchronous Behaviormax_parallel_workers_per_gather configuration parameter, Asynchronous Behaviormax_pred_locks_per_page configuration parameter, Lock Managementmax_pred_locks_per_relation configuration parameter, Lock Managementmax_pred_locks_per_transaction configuration parameter, Lock Managementmax_prepared_transactions configuration parameter, Memorymax_replication_slots configuration parameter, Sending Serversmax_slot_wal_keep_size configuration parameter, Sending Serversmax_stack_depth configuration parameter, Memorymax_standby_archive_delay configuration parameter, Standby Serversmax_standby_streaming_delay configuration parameter, Standby Serversmax_sync_workers_per_subscription configuration parameter, Subscribersmax_wal_senders configuration parameter, Sending Serversmax_wal_size configuration parameter, Checkpointsmax_worker_processes configuration parameter, Asynchronous Behaviormd5, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and OperatorsMD5, Password Authenticationmedian, Aggregate Expressions(see also percentile)memory contextin SPI, Memory Managementmemory overcommit, Linux Memory Overcommitmetaphone, Metaphonemin, Aggregate FunctionsMinGW, MinGW/Native Windowsinstallation on, MinGW/Native Windowsmin_dynamic_shared_memory configuration parameter, Memorymin_parallel_index_scan_size configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantsmin_parallel_table_scan_size configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantsmin_scale, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsmin_wal_size configuration parameter, Checkpointsmod, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsmodestatistical, Aggregate Functionsmonitoring, Monitoring Database Activitydatabase activity, Monitoring Database ActivityMOVE, MOVEmoving-aggregate mode, Moving-Aggregate Modemultirange (function), Range/Multirange Functions and Operatorsmultirange type, Range TypesMultiversion Concurrency Control, IntroductionMultiXactId, Multixacts and WraparoundMVCC, Introduction

# N

name, Identifiers and Key Wordsqualified, Creating a Schemasyntax of, Identifiers and Key Wordsunqualified, The Schema Search PathNaN (see not a number)natural join, Joined Tablesnegation, Logical OperatorsNetBSDIPC configuration, Shared Memory and Semaphoresshared library, Compiling and Linking Dynamically-Loaded Functionsstart script, Starting the Database Servernetmask, Network Address Functions and Operatorsnetwork, Network Address Types, Network Address Functions and Operatorsdata types, Network Address Typesnextval, Sequence Manipulation FunctionsNFS, NFSnlevel, Operators and Functionsnon-durable, Non-Durable Settingsnonblocking connection, Database Connection Control Functions, Asynchronous Command Processingnonrepeatable read, Transaction Isolationnormalize, String Functions and Operatorsnormalized, String Functions and Operatorsnormal_rand, normal_randNOT (operator), Logical Operatorsnot a numberfloating point, Floating-Point Typesnumeric (data type), Arbitrary Precision NumbersNOT IN, Subquery Expressions, Row and Array Comparisonsnot-null constraint, Not-Null Constraintsnotation, Calling Functionsfunctions, Calling Functionsnotice processing, Notice Processingin libpq, Notice Processingnotice processor, Notice Processingnotice receiver, Notice ProcessingNOTIFY, Asynchronous Notification, NOTIFYin libpq, Asynchronous NotificationNOTNULL, Comparison Functions and Operatorsnow, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsnpoints, Geometric Functions and Operatorsnth_value, Window Functionsntile, Window Functionsnull valuewith check constraints, Check Constraintscomparing, Comparison Functions and Operatorsdefault value, Default Valuesin DISTINCT, DISTINCTin libpq, Retrieving Query Result Informationin PL/Perl, PL/Perl Functions and Argumentsin PL/Python, Null, Nonewith unique constraints, Unique ConstraintsNULLIF, NULLIFnumberconstant, Numeric Constantsnumeric, Numeric Constantsnumeric (data type), Arbitrary Precision Numbersnumnode, Text Search Functions and Operators, Manipulating Queriesnum_nonnulls, Comparison Functions and Operatorsnum_nulls, Comparison Functions and OperatorsNVL, COALESCE

# O

object identifier, Object Identifier Typesdata type, Object Identifier Typesobject-oriented database, Conceptsobj_description, System Information Functions and Operatorsoctet_length, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and Operators, Bit String Functions and OperatorsOFFSET, LIMIT and OFFSEToid, Object Identifier TypesOIDin libpq, Retrieving Other Result Informationoid2name, oid2nameold_snapshot, old_snapshotold_snapshot_threshold configuration parameter, Asynchronous BehaviorON CONFLICT, INSERTONLY, The FROM ClauseOOM, Linux Memory OvercommitOpenBSDIPC configuration, Shared Memory and Semaphoresshared library, Compiling and Linking Dynamically-Loaded Functionsstart script, Starting the Database ServerOpenSSL, PostgreSQL Features(see also SSL)operator, Operators, Operator Precedence, Functions and Operators, Logical Operators, Operators, User-Defined Operatorsinvocation, Operator Invocationslogical, Logical Operatorsprecedence, Operator Precedencesyntax, Operatorstype resolution in an invocation, Operatorsuser-defined, User-Defined Operatorsoperator class, Operator Classes and Operator Families, Index Methods and Operator Classesoperator family, Operator Classes and Operator Families, Operator Classes and Operator Familiesoptimization information, Function Optimization Information, Operator Optimization Informationfor functions, Function Optimization Informationfor operators, Operator Optimization InformationOR (operator), Logical OperatorsOracle, Porting from Oracle PL/SQLporting from PL/SQL to PL/pgSQL, Porting from Oracle PL/SQLORDER BY, Querying a Table, Sorting Rows (ORDER BY)and locales, Behaviorordered-set aggregate, Aggregate Expressionsbuilt-in, Aggregate Functionsordering operator, System Dependencies on Operator Classesordinality, Set Returning Functionsouter join, Joined Tablesoutput function, User-Defined TypesOVER clause, Window Function Callsovercommit, Linux Memory OvercommitOVERLAPS, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsoverlay, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and Operators, Bit String Functions and Operatorsoverloading, Function Overloadingfunctions, Function Overloadingoperators, User-Defined Operatorsowner, Privileges

# P

pageinspect, pageinspectpages_per_range storage parameter, Index Storage Parameterspage_checksum, General Functionspage_header, General Functionspalloc, Writing CodePAM, PostgreSQL Features, PAM Authenticationparallel query, Parallel Queryparallel_leader_participation configuration parameter, Asynchronous Behaviorparallel_setup_cost configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantsparallel_tuple_cost configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantsparallel_workers storage parameter, Storage Parametersparametersyntax, Positional Parametersparenthesis, Value Expressionsparse_ident, String Functions and Operatorspartition pruning, Partition Pruningpartitioned table, Table Partitioningpartitioning, Table Partitioningpassword, Role Attributesauthentication, Password Authenticationof the superuser, Creating a Database Clusterpassword file, The Password Filepasswordcheck, passwordcheckpassword_encryption configuration parameter, Authenticationpath, Geometric Functions and Operatorsfor schemas, Statement BehaviorPATH, Environment Variablespath (data type), Pathspattern matching, Pattern Matchingpatternsin psql and pg_dump, Patternspclose, Geometric Functions and Operatorspeer, Peer Authenticationpercentilecontinuous, Aggregate Functionsdiscrete, Aggregate Functionspercent_rank, Window Functionshypothetical, Aggregate Functionsperformance, Performance Tipsperl, RequirementsPerl, PL/Perl — Perl Procedural Languagepermission (see privilege)pfree, Writing CodePGAPPNAME, Environment Variablespgbench, pgbenchPGcancel, Canceling Queries in ProgressPGCHANNELBINDING, Environment VariablesPGCLIENTENCODING, Environment VariablesPGconn, Database Connection Control FunctionsPGCONNECT_TIMEOUT, Environment Variablespgcrypto, pgcryptoPGDATA, Creating a Database ClusterPGDATABASE, Environment VariablesPGDATESTYLE, Environment VariablesPGEventProc, Event Callback ProcedurePGGEQO, Environment VariablesPGGSSENCMODE, Environment VariablesPGGSSLIB, Environment VariablesPGHOST, Environment VariablesPGHOSTADDR, Environment VariablesPGKRBSRVNAME, Environment VariablesPGLOCALEDIR, Environment VariablesPGOPTIONS, Environment VariablesPGPASSFILE, Environment VariablesPGPASSWORD, Environment VariablesPGPORT, Environment Variablespgp_armor_headers, pgp_armor_headerspgp_key_id, pgp_key_id()pgp_pub_decrypt, pgp_pub_decrypt()pgp_pub_decrypt_bytea, pgp_pub_decrypt()pgp_pub_encrypt, pgp_pub_encrypt()pgp_pub_encrypt_bytea, pgp_pub_encrypt()pgp_sym_decrypt, pgp_sym_decrypt()pgp_sym_decrypt_bytea, pgp_sym_decrypt()pgp_sym_encrypt, pgp_sym_encrypt()pgp_sym_encrypt_bytea, pgp_sym_encrypt()PGREQUIREPEER, Environment VariablesPGREQUIRESSL, Environment VariablesPGresult, Main Functionspgrowlocks, pgrowlocks, OverviewPGSERVICE, Environment VariablesPGSERVICEFILE, Environment VariablesPGSSLCERT, Environment VariablesPGSSLCOMPRESSION, Environment VariablesPGSSLCRL, Environment VariablesPGSSLCRLDIR, Environment VariablesPGSSLKEY, Environment VariablesPGSSLMAXPROTOCOLVERSION, Environment VariablesPGSSLMINPROTOCOLVERSION, Environment VariablesPGSSLMODE, Environment VariablesPGSSLROOTCERT, Environment VariablesPGSSLSNI, Environment Variablespgstatginindex, Functionspgstathashindex, Functionspgstatindex, Functionspgstattuple, pgstattuple, Functionspgstattuple_approx, FunctionsPGSYSCONFDIR, Environment VariablesPGTARGETSESSIONATTRS, Environment VariablesPGTZ, Environment VariablesPGUSER, Environment Variablespgxs, Extension Building Infrastructurepg_advisory_lock, Advisory Lock Functionspg_advisory_lock_shared, Advisory Lock Functionspg_advisory_unlock, Advisory Lock Functionspg_advisory_unlock_all, Advisory Lock Functionspg_advisory_unlock_shared, Advisory Lock Functionspg_advisory_xact_lock, Advisory Lock Functionspg_advisory_xact_lock_shared, Advisory Lock Functionspg_aggregate, pg_aggregatepg_am, pg_ampg_amcheck, pg_amcheckpg_amop, pg_amoppg_amproc, pg_amprocpg_archivecleanup, pg_archivecleanuppg_attrdef, pg_attrdefpg_attribute, pg_attributepg_authid, pg_authidpg_auth_members, pg_auth_memberspg_available_extensions, pg_available_extensionspg_available_extension_versions, pg_available_extension_versionspg_backend_memory_contexts, pg_backend_memory_contextspg_backend_pid, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_backup_start_time, Backup Control Functionspg_basebackup, pg_basebackuppg_blocking_pids, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_buffercache, pg_buffercachepg_buffercache_pages, pg_buffercachepg_cancel_backend, Server Signaling Functionspg_cast, pg_castpg_checksums, pg_checksumspg_class, pg_classpg_client_encoding, String Functions and Operatorspg_collation, pg_collationpg_collation_actual_version, Database Object Management Functionspg_collation_is_visible, System Information Functions and OperatorsPG_COLOR, When Color is UsedPG_COLORS, Configuring the Colorspg_column_compression, Database Object Management Functionspg_column_size, Database Object Management Functionspg_config, pg_config, pg_configwith ecpg, Processing Embedded SQL Programswith libpq, Building libpq Programswith user-defined C functions, Writing Codepg_conf_load_time, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_constraint, pg_constraintpg_controldata, pg_controldatapg_control_checkpoint, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_control_init, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_control_recovery, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_control_system, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_conversion, pg_conversionpg_conversion_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_copy_logical_replication_slot, Replication Management Functionspg_copy_physical_replication_slot, Replication Management Functionspg_create_logical_replication_slot, Replication Management Functionspg_create_physical_replication_slot, Replication Management Functionspg_create_restore_point, Backup Control Functionspg_ctl, Creating a Database Cluster, Starting the Database Server, pg_ctlpg_current_logfile, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_current_snapshot, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_current_wal_flush_lsn, Backup Control Functionspg_current_wal_insert_lsn, Backup Control Functionspg_current_wal_lsn, Backup Control Functionspg_current_xact_id, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_current_xact_id_if_assigned, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_cursors, pg_cursorspg_database, Template Databases, pg_databasepg_database_size, Database Object Management Functionspg_db_role_setting, pg_db_role_settingpg_ddl_command, Pseudo-Typespg_default_acl, pg_default_aclpg_depend, pg_dependpg_describe_object, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_description, pg_descriptionpg_drop_replication_slot, Replication Management Functionspg_dump, pg_dumppg_dumpall, pg_dumpalluse during upgrade, Upgrading Data via pg_dumpallpg_enum, pg_enumpg_event_trigger, pg_event_triggerpg_event_trigger_ddl_commands, Capturing Changes at Command Endpg_event_trigger_dropped_objects, Processing Objects Dropped by a DDL Commandpg_event_trigger_table_rewrite_oid, Handling a Table Rewrite Eventpg_event_trigger_table_rewrite_reason, Handling a Table Rewrite Eventpg_export_snapshot, Snapshot Synchronization Functionspg_extension, pg_extensionpg_extension_config_dump, Extension Configuration Tablespg_filenode_relation, Database Object Management Functionspg_file_rename, adminpackpg_file_settings, pg_file_settingspg_file_sync, adminpackpg_file_unlink, adminpackpg_file_write, adminpackpg_foreign_data_wrapper, pg_foreign_data_wrapperpg_foreign_server, pg_foreign_serverpg_foreign_table, pg_foreign_tablepg_freespace, Functionspg_freespacemap, pg_freespacemappg_function_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_catalog_foreign_keys, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_constraintdef, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_expr, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_functiondef, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_function_arguments, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_function_identity_arguments, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_function_result, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_indexdef, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_keywords, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_object_address, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_ruledef, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_serial_sequence, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_statisticsobjdef, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_triggerdef, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_userbyid, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_viewdef, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_get_wal_replay_pause_state, Recovery Control Functionspg_group, pg_grouppg_has_role, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_hba.conf, The pg_hba.conf Filepg_hba_file_rules, pg_hba_file_rulespg_ident.conf, User Name Mapspg_identify_object, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_identify_object_as_address, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_import_system_collations, Database Object Management Functionspg_index, pg_indexpg_indexam_has_property, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_indexes, pg_indexespg_indexes_size, Database Object Management Functionspg_index_column_has_property, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_index_has_property, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_inherits, pg_inheritspg_init_privs, pg_init_privspg_isready, pg_isreadypg_is_in_backup, Backup Control Functionspg_is_in_recovery, Recovery Control Functionspg_is_other_temp_schema, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_is_wal_replay_paused, Recovery Control Functionspg_jit_available, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_language, pg_languagepg_largeobject, pg_largeobjectpg_largeobject_metadata, pg_largeobject_metadatapg_last_committed_xact, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_last_wal_receive_lsn, Recovery Control Functionspg_last_wal_replay_lsn, Recovery Control Functionspg_last_xact_replay_timestamp, Recovery Control Functionspg_listening_channels, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_locks, pg_lockspg_logdir_ls, adminpackpg_logical_emit_message, Replication Management Functionspg_logical_slot_get_binary_changes, Replication Management Functionspg_logical_slot_get_changes, Replication Management Functionspg_logical_slot_peek_binary_changes, Replication Management Functionspg_logical_slot_peek_changes, Replication Management Functionspg_log_backend_memory_contexts, Server Signaling Functionspg_lsn, pg_lsn Typepg_ls_archive_statusdir, Generic File Access Functionspg_ls_dir, Generic File Access Functionspg_ls_logdir, Generic File Access Functionspg_ls_tmpdir, Generic File Access Functionspg_ls_waldir, Generic File Access Functionspg_matviews, pg_matviewspg_mcv_list_items, Inspecting MCV Listspg_my_temp_schema, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_namespace, pg_namespacepg_notification_queue_usage, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_notify, pg_notifypg_opclass, pg_opclasspg_opclass_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_operator, pg_operatorpg_operator_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_opfamily, pg_opfamilypg_opfamily_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_options_to_table, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_partitioned_table, pg_partitioned_tablepg_partition_ancestors, Database Object Management Functionspg_partition_root, Database Object Management Functionspg_partition_tree, Database Object Management Functionspg_policies, pg_policiespg_policy, pg_policypg_postmaster_start_time, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_prepared_statements, pg_prepared_statementspg_prepared_xacts, pg_prepared_xactspg_prewarm, pg_prewarmpg_prewarm.autoprewarm configuration parameter, Configuration Parameterspg_prewarm.autoprewarm_interval configuration parameter, Configuration Parameterspg_proc, pg_procpg_promote, Recovery Control Functionspg_publication, pg_publicationpg_publication_rel, pg_publication_relpg_publication_tables, pg_publication_tablespg_range, pg_rangepg_read_binary_file, Generic File Access Functionspg_read_file, Generic File Access Functionspg_receivewal, pg_receivewalpg_receivexlog, pg_receivexlog renamed to pg_receivewal (see pg_receivewal)pg_recvlogical, pg_recvlogicalpg_relation_filenode, Database Object Management Functionspg_relation_filepath, Database Object Management Functionspg_relation_size, Database Object Management Functionspg_reload_conf, Server Signaling Functionspg_relpages, Functionspg_replication_origin, pg_replication_originpg_replication_origin_advance, Replication Management Functionspg_replication_origin_create, Replication Management Functionspg_replication_origin_drop, Replication Management Functionspg_replication_origin_oid, Replication Management Functionspg_replication_origin_progress, Replication Management Functionspg_replication_origin_session_is_setup, Replication Management Functionspg_replication_origin_session_progress, Replication Management Functionspg_replication_origin_session_reset, Replication Management Functionspg_replication_origin_session_setup, Replication Management Functionspg_replication_origin_status, pg_replication_origin_statuspg_replication_origin_xact_reset, Replication Management Functionspg_replication_origin_xact_setup, Replication Management Functionspg_replication_slots, pg_replication_slotspg_replication_slot_advance, Replication Management Functionspg_resetwal, pg_resetwalpg_resetxlog, pg_resetxlog renamed to pg_resetwal (see pg_resetwal)pg_restore, pg_restorepg_rewind, pg_rewindpg_rewrite, pg_rewritepg_roles, pg_rolespg_rotate_logfile, Server Signaling Functionspg_rules, pg_rulespg_safe_snapshot_blocking_pids, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_seclabel, pg_seclabelpg_seclabels, pg_seclabelspg_sequence, pg_sequencepg_sequences, pg_sequencespg_service.conf, The Connection Service Filepg_settings, pg_settingspg_shadow, pg_shadowpg_shdepend, pg_shdependpg_shdescription, pg_shdescriptionpg_shmem_allocations, pg_shmem_allocationspg_shseclabel, pg_shseclabelpg_size_bytes, Database Object Management Functionspg_size_pretty, Database Object Management Functionspg_sleep, Delaying Executionpg_sleep_for, Delaying Executionpg_sleep_until, Delaying Executionpg_snapshot_xip, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_snapshot_xmax, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_snapshot_xmin, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_start_backup, Backup Control Functionspg_statio_all_indexes, Viewing Statistics, pg_statio_all_indexespg_statio_all_sequences, Viewing Statistics, pg_statio_all_sequencespg_statio_all_tables, Viewing Statistics, pg_statio_all_tablespg_statio_sys_indexes, Viewing Statisticspg_statio_sys_sequences, Viewing Statisticspg_statio_sys_tables, Viewing Statisticspg_statio_user_indexes, Viewing Statisticspg_statio_user_sequences, Viewing Statisticspg_statio_user_tables, Viewing Statisticspg_statistic, Single-Column Statistics, pg_statisticpg_statistics_obj_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_statistic_ext, Extended Statistics, pg_statistic_extpg_statistic_ext_data, Extended Statistics, pg_statistic_extpg_stats, Single-Column Statistics, pg_statspg_stats_ext, pg_stats_extpg_stats_ext_exprs, pg_stats_ext_exprspg_stat_activity, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_activitypg_stat_all_indexes, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_all_indexespg_stat_all_tables, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_all_tablespg_stat_archiver, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_archiverpg_stat_bgwriter, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_bgwriterpg_stat_clear_snapshot, Statistics Functionspg_stat_database, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_databasepg_stat_database_conflicts, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_database_conflictspg_stat_file, Generic File Access Functionspg_stat_get_activity, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_activity, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_activity_start, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_client_addr, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_client_port, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_dbid, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_idset, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_pid, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_start, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_userid, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_wait_event, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_wait_event_type, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_backend_xact_start, Statistics Functionspg_stat_get_snapshot_timestamp, Statistics Functionspg_stat_gssapi, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_gssapipg_stat_progress_analyze, Viewing Statistics, ANALYZE Progress Reportingpg_stat_progress_basebackup, Viewing Statistics, Base Backup Progress Reportingpg_stat_progress_cluster, Viewing Statistics, CLUSTER Progress Reportingpg_stat_progress_copy, Viewing Statistics, COPY Progress Reportingpg_stat_progress_create_index, Viewing Statistics, CREATE INDEX Progress Reportingpg_stat_progress_vacuum, Viewing Statistics, VACUUM Progress Reportingpg_stat_replication, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_replicationpg_stat_replication_slots, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_replication_slotspg_stat_reset, Statistics Functionspg_stat_reset_replication_slot, Statistics Functionspg_stat_reset_shared, Statistics Functionspg_stat_reset_single_function_counters, Statistics Functionspg_stat_reset_single_table_counters, Statistics Functionspg_stat_reset_slru, Statistics Functionspg_stat_slru, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_slrupg_stat_ssl, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_sslpg_stat_statements, pg_stat_statementsfunction, Functionspg_stat_statements_info, The pg_stat_statements_info Viewpg_stat_statements_reset, Functionspg_stat_subscription, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_subscriptionpg_stat_sys_indexes, Viewing Statisticspg_stat_sys_tables, Viewing Statisticspg_stat_user_functions, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_user_functionspg_stat_user_indexes, Viewing Statisticspg_stat_user_tables, Viewing Statisticspg_stat_wal, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_walpg_stat_wal_receiver, Viewing Statistics, pg_stat_wal_receiverpg_stat_xact_all_tables, Viewing Statisticspg_stat_xact_sys_tables, Viewing Statisticspg_stat_xact_user_functions, Viewing Statisticspg_stat_xact_user_tables, Viewing Statisticspg_stop_backup, Backup Control Functionspg_subscription, pg_subscriptionpg_subscription_rel, pg_subscription_relpg_surgery, pg_surgerypg_switch_wal, Backup Control Functionspg_tables, pg_tablespg_tablespace, pg_tablespacepg_tablespace_databases, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_tablespace_location, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_tablespace_size, Database Object Management Functionspg_table_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_table_size, Database Object Management Functionspg_temp, Statement Behaviorsecuring functions, Writing SECURITY DEFINER Functions Safelypg_terminate_backend, Server Signaling Functionspg_test_fsync, pg_test_fsyncpg_test_timing, pg_test_timingpg_timezone_abbrevs, pg_timezone_abbrevspg_timezone_names, pg_timezone_namespg_total_relation_size, Database Object Management Functionspg_transform, pg_transformpg_trgm, pg_trgmpg_trgm.similarity_threshold configuration parameter, GUC Parameterspg_trgm.strict_word_similarity_threshold configuration parameter, GUC Parameterspg_trgm.word_similarity_threshold configuration parameter, GUC Parameterspg_trigger, pg_triggerpg_trigger_depth, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_try_advisory_lock, Advisory Lock Functionspg_try_advisory_lock_shared, Advisory Lock Functionspg_try_advisory_xact_lock, Advisory Lock Functionspg_try_advisory_xact_lock_shared, Advisory Lock Functionspg_ts_config, pg_ts_configpg_ts_config_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_ts_config_map, pg_ts_config_mappg_ts_dict, pg_ts_dictpg_ts_dict_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_ts_parser, pg_ts_parserpg_ts_parser_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_ts_template, pg_ts_templatepg_ts_template_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_type, pg_typepg_typeof, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_type_is_visible, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_upgrade, pg_upgradepg_user, pg_userpg_user_mapping, pg_user_mappingpg_user_mappings, pg_user_mappingspg_verifybackup, pg_verifybackuppg_views, pg_viewspg_visibility, pg_visibilitypg_visible_in_snapshot, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_waldump, pg_waldumppg_walfile_name, Backup Control Functionspg_walfile_name_offset, Backup Control Functionspg_wal_lsn_diff, Backup Control Functionspg_wal_replay_pause, Recovery Control Functionspg_wal_replay_resume, Recovery Control Functionspg_xact_commit_timestamp, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_xact_commit_timestamp_origin, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_xact_status, System Information Functions and Operatorspg_xlogdump, pg_xlogdump renamed to pg_waldump (see pg_waldump)phantom read, Transaction Isolationphraseto_tsquery, Text Search Functions and Operators, Parsing Queriespi, Mathematical Functions and OperatorsPIC, Compiling and Linking Dynamically-Loaded FunctionsPIDdetermining PID of server processin libpq, Connection Status Functionspipelining, Pipeline Modein libpq, Pipeline ModePITR, Backup and RestorePITR standby, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationpkg-config, PostgreSQL Featureswith ecpg, Processing Embedded SQL Programswith libpq, Building libpq ProgramsPL/Perl, PL/Perl — Perl Procedural LanguagePL/PerlU, Trusted and Untrusted PL/PerlPL/pgSQL, PL/pgSQL — SQL Procedural LanguagePL/Python, PL/Python — Python Procedural LanguagePL/SQL (Oracle), Porting from Oracle PL/SQLporting to PL/pgSQL, Porting from Oracle PL/SQLPL/Tcl, PL/Tcl — Tcl Procedural Languageplainto_tsquery, Text Search Functions and Operators, Parsing Queriesplan_cache_mode configuration parameter, Other Planner Optionsplperl.on_init configuration parameter, Configurationplperl.on_plperlu_init configuration parameter, Configurationplperl.on_plperl_init configuration parameter, Configurationplperl.use_strict configuration parameter, Configurationplpgsql.check_asserts configuration parameter, Checking Assertionsplpgsql.variable_conflict configuration parameter, Variable Substitutionpltcl.start_proc configuration parameter, PL/Tcl Configurationpltclu.start_proc configuration parameter, PL/Tcl Configurationpoint, Points, Geometric Functions and Operatorspoint-in-time recovery, Backup and Restorepolicy, Row Security Policiespolygon, Polygons, Geometric Functions and Operatorspolymorphic function, Polymorphic Typespolymorphic type, Polymorphic Typespopcount (see bit_count)popen, Geometric Functions and Operatorspopulate_record, hstore Operators and Functionsport, Parameter Key Wordsport configuration parameter, Connection Settingsposition, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and Operators, Bit String Functions and OperatorsPOSTGRES, The Berkeley POSTGRES Projectpostgres, Architectural Fundamentals, Starting the Database Server, Creating a Database, postgrespostgres user, The PostgreSQL User AccountPostgres95, Postgres95postgresql.auto.conf, Parameter Interaction via the Configuration Filepostgresql.conf, Parameter Interaction via the Configuration Filepostgres_fdw, postgres_fdwpostmaster, postmasterpost_auth_delay configuration parameter, Developer Optionspower, Mathematical Functions and OperatorsPQbackendPID, Connection Status FunctionsPQbinaryTuples, Retrieving Query Result Informationwith COPY, Functions Associated with the COPY CommandPQcancel, Canceling Queries in ProgressPQclear, Main FunctionsPQclientEncoding, Control FunctionsPQcmdStatus, Retrieving Other Result InformationPQcmdTuples, Retrieving Other Result InformationPQconndefaults, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQconnectdb, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQconnectdbParams, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQconnectionNeedsPassword, Connection Status FunctionsPQconnectionUsedPassword, Connection Status FunctionsPQconnectPoll, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQconnectStart, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQconnectStartParams, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQconninfo, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQconninfoFree, Miscellaneous FunctionsPQconninfoParse, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQconsumeInput, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQcopyResult, Miscellaneous FunctionsPQdb, Connection Status FunctionsPQdescribePortal, Main FunctionsPQdescribePrepared, Main FunctionsPQencryptPassword, Miscellaneous FunctionsPQencryptPasswordConn, Miscellaneous FunctionsPQendcopy, Obsolete Functions for COPYPQenterPipelineMode, Functions Associated with Pipeline ModePQerrorMessage, Connection Status FunctionsPQescapeBytea, Escaping Strings for Inclusion in SQL CommandsPQescapeByteaConn, Escaping Strings for Inclusion in SQL CommandsPQescapeIdentifier, Escaping Strings for Inclusion in SQL CommandsPQescapeLiteral, Escaping Strings for Inclusion in SQL CommandsPQescapeString, Escaping Strings for Inclusion in SQL CommandsPQescapeStringConn, Escaping Strings for Inclusion in SQL CommandsPQexec, Main FunctionsPQexecParams, Main FunctionsPQexecPrepared, Main FunctionsPQexitPipelineMode, Functions Associated with Pipeline ModePQfformat, Retrieving Query Result Informationwith COPY, Functions Associated with the COPY CommandPQfinish, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQfireResultCreateEvents, Miscellaneous FunctionsPQflush, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQfmod, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQfn, The Fast-Path InterfacePQfname, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQfnumber, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQfreeCancel, Canceling Queries in ProgressPQfreemem, Miscellaneous FunctionsPQfsize, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQftable, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQftablecol, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQftype, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQgetCancel, Canceling Queries in ProgressPQgetCopyData, Functions for Receiving COPY DataPQgetisnull, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQgetlength, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQgetline, Obsolete Functions for COPYPQgetlineAsync, Obsolete Functions for COPYPQgetResult, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQgetssl, Connection Status FunctionsPQgetSSLKeyPassHook_OpenSSL, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQgetvalue, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQhost, Connection Status FunctionsPQhostaddr, Connection Status FunctionsPQinitOpenSSL, SSL Library InitializationPQinitSSL, SSL Library InitializationPQinstanceData, Event Support FunctionsPQisBusy, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQisnonblocking, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQisthreadsafe, Behavior in Threaded ProgramsPQlibVersion, Miscellaneous Functions(see also PQserverVersion)PQmakeEmptyPGresult, Miscellaneous FunctionsPQnfields, Retrieving Query Result Informationwith COPY, Functions Associated with the COPY CommandPQnotifies, Asynchronous NotificationPQnparams, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQntuples, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQoidStatus, Retrieving Other Result InformationPQoidValue, Retrieving Other Result InformationPQoptions, Connection Status FunctionsPQparameterStatus, Connection Status FunctionsPQparamtype, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQpass, Connection Status FunctionsPQping, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQpingParams, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQpipelineStatus, Functions Associated with Pipeline ModePQpipelineSync, Functions Associated with Pipeline ModePQport, Connection Status FunctionsPQprepare, Main FunctionsPQprint, Retrieving Query Result InformationPQprotocolVersion, Connection Status FunctionsPQputCopyData, Functions for Sending COPY DataPQputCopyEnd, Functions for Sending COPY DataPQputline, Obsolete Functions for COPYPQputnbytes, Obsolete Functions for COPYPQregisterEventProc, Event Support FunctionsPQrequestCancel, Canceling Queries in ProgressPQreset, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQresetPoll, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQresetStart, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQresStatus, Main FunctionsPQresultAlloc, Miscellaneous FunctionsPQresultErrorField, Main FunctionsPQresultErrorMessage, Main FunctionsPQresultInstanceData, Event Support FunctionsPQresultMemorySize, Miscellaneous FunctionsPQresultSetInstanceData, Event Support FunctionsPQresultStatus, Main FunctionsPQresultVerboseErrorMessage, Main FunctionsPQsendDescribePortal, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQsendDescribePrepared, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQsendFlushRequest, Functions Associated with Pipeline ModePQsendPrepare, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQsendQuery, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQsendQueryParams, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQsendQueryPrepared, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQserverVersion, Connection Status FunctionsPQsetClientEncoding, Control FunctionsPQsetdb, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQsetdbLogin, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQsetErrorContextVisibility, Control FunctionsPQsetErrorVerbosity, Control FunctionsPQsetInstanceData, Event Support FunctionsPQsetnonblocking, Asynchronous Command ProcessingPQsetNoticeProcessor, Notice ProcessingPQsetNoticeReceiver, Notice ProcessingPQsetResultAttrs, Miscellaneous FunctionsPQsetSingleRowMode, Retrieving Query Results Row-by-RowPQsetSSLKeyPassHook_OpenSSL, Database Connection Control FunctionsPQsetTraceFlags, Control FunctionsPQsetvalue, Miscellaneous FunctionsPQsocket, Connection Status FunctionsPQsslAttribute, Connection Status FunctionsPQsslAttributeNames, Connection Status FunctionsPQsslInUse, Connection Status FunctionsPQsslStruct, Connection Status FunctionsPQstatus, Connection Status FunctionsPQtrace, Control FunctionsPQtransactionStatus, Connection Status FunctionsPQtty, Connection Status FunctionsPQunescapeBytea, Escaping Strings for Inclusion in SQL CommandsPQuntrace, Control FunctionsPQuser, Connection Status Functionspredicate locking, Serializable Isolation LevelPREPARE, PREPAREPREPARE TRANSACTION, PREPARE TRANSACTIONprepared statements, DEALLOCATE, EXECUTE, EXPLAIN, PREPAREcreating, PREPAREexecuting, EXECUTEremoving, DEALLOCATEshowing the query plan, EXPLAINpreparing a queryin PL/pgSQL, Plan Cachingin PL/Python, Database Access Functionsin PL/Tcl, Database Access from PL/Tclpre_auth_delay configuration parameter, Developer Optionsprimary key, Primary Keysprimary_conninfo configuration parameter, Standby Serversprimary_slot_name configuration parameter, Standby Serversprivilege, Privileges, Schemas and Privileges, Rules and Privileges, Rules and Privilegesquerying, System Information Functions and Operatorswith rules, Rules and Privilegesfor schemas, Schemas and Privilegeswith views, Rules and Privilegesprocedural language, Procedural Languages, Writing a Procedural Language Handlerexternally maintained, Procedural Languageshandler for, Writing a Procedural Language Handlerprocedure, User-Defined Proceduresuser-defined, User-Defined Proceduresproceduresoutput parameter, SQL Procedures with Output Parameterspromote_trigger_file configuration parameter, Standby Serversprotocol, Frontend/Backend Protocolfrontend-backend, Frontend/Backend Protocolps, Standard Unix Toolsto monitor activity, Standard Unix Toolspsql, Accessing a Database, psqlPython, PL/Python — Python Procedural Language

# Q

qualified name, Creating a Schemaquery, Querying a Table, Queriesquery plan, Using EXPLAINquery tree, The Query Treequerytree, Text Search Functions and Operators, Manipulating Queriesquotation marksand identifiers, Identifiers and Key Wordsescaping, String Constantsquote_all_identifiers configuration parameter, Previous PostgreSQL Versionsquote_ident, String Functions and Operatorsin PL/Perl, Utility Functions in PL/Perluse in PL/pgSQL, Executing Dynamic Commandsquote_literal, String Functions and Operatorsin PL/Perl, Utility Functions in PL/Perluse in PL/pgSQL, Executing Dynamic Commandsquote_nullable, String Functions and Operatorsin PL/Perl, Utility Functions in PL/Perluse in PL/pgSQL, Executing Dynamic Commands

# R

radians, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsradius, Geometric Functions and OperatorsRADIUS, RADIUS AuthenticationRAISEin PL/pgSQL, Reporting Errors and Messagesrandom, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsrandom_page_cost configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantsrange table, The Query Treerange type, Range Typesexclude, Constraints on Rangesindexes on, Indexingrange_agg, Aggregate Functionsrange_intersect_agg, Aggregate Functionsrange_merge, Range/Multirange Functions and Operatorsrank, Window Functionshypothetical, Aggregate Functionsread committed, Read Committed Isolation Levelread-only transaction, Statement Behaviorsetting, SET TRANSACTIONsetting default, Statement Behaviorreadline, Requirementsreal, Floating-Point TypesREASSIGN OWNED, REASSIGN OWNEDrecord, Pseudo-Typesrecovery.conf, recovery.conf file merged into postgresql.confrecovery.signal, Archive Recoveryrecovery_end_command configuration parameter, Archive Recoveryrecovery_init_sync_method configuration parameter, Error Handlingrecovery_min_apply_delay configuration parameter, Standby Serversrecovery_target configuration parameter, Recovery Targetrecovery_target_action configuration parameter, Recovery Targetrecovery_target_inclusive configuration parameter, Recovery Targetrecovery_target_lsn configuration parameter, Recovery Targetrecovery_target_name configuration parameter, Recovery Targetrecovery_target_time configuration parameter, Recovery Targetrecovery_target_timeline configuration parameter, Recovery Targetrecovery_target_xid configuration parameter, Recovery Targetrectangle, BoxesRECURSIVE, CREATE VIEWin common table expressions, Recursive Queriesin views, CREATE VIEWreferential integrity, Foreign Keys, Foreign KeysREFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEW, REFRESH MATERIALIZED VIEWregclass, Object Identifier Typesregcollation, Object Identifier Typesregconfig, Object Identifier Typesregdictionary, Object Identifier Typesregexp_match, String Functions and Operators, POSIX Regular Expressionsregexp_matches, String Functions and Operators, POSIX Regular Expressionsregexp_replace, String Functions and Operators, POSIX Regular Expressionsregexp_split_to_array, String Functions and Operators, POSIX Regular Expressionsregexp_split_to_table, String Functions and Operators, POSIX Regular Expressionsregnamespace, Object Identifier Typesregoper, Object Identifier Typesregoperator, Object Identifier Typesregproc, Object Identifier Typesregprocedure, Object Identifier Typesregression intercept, Aggregate Functionsregression slope, Aggregate Functionsregression test, Installation Procedureregression tests, Regression Testsregrole, Object Identifier Typesregr_avgx, Aggregate Functionsregr_avgy, Aggregate Functionsregr_count, Aggregate Functionsregr_intercept, Aggregate Functionsregr_r2, Aggregate Functionsregr_slope, Aggregate Functionsregr_sxx, Aggregate Functionsregr_sxy, Aggregate Functionsregr_syy, Aggregate Functionsregtype, Object Identifier Typesregular expression, SIMILAR TO Regular Expressions, POSIX Regular Expressions(see also pattern matching)regular expressionsand locales, Behaviorreindex, Routine ReindexingREINDEX, REINDEXreindexdb, reindexdbrelation, Conceptsrelational database, ConceptsRELEASE SAVEPOINT, RELEASE SAVEPOINTremove_temp_files_after_crash configuration parameter, Developer Optionsrepeat, String Functions and Operatorsrepeatable read, Repeatable Read Isolation Levelreplace, String Functions and Operatorsreplication, High Availability, Load Balancing, and ReplicationReplication Origins, Replication Progress TrackingReplication Progress Tracking, Replication Progress Trackingreplication slotlogical replication, Replication Slotsstreaming replication, Replication Slotsreporting errorsin PL/pgSQL, Reporting Errors and MessagesRESET, RESETrestartpoint, WAL Configurationrestart_after_crash configuration parameter, Error Handlingrestore_command configuration parameter, Archive RecoveryRESTRICT, Dependency Trackingwith DROP, Dependency Trackingforeign key action, Foreign KeysRETURN NEXTin PL/pgSQL, RETURN NEXT and RETURN QUERYRETURN QUERYin PL/pgSQL, RETURN NEXT and RETURN QUERYRETURNING, Returning Data from Modified RowsRETURNING INTO, Executing a Command with a Single-Row Resultin PL/pgSQL, Executing a Command with a Single-Row Resultreverse, String Functions and OperatorsREVOKE, Privileges, REVOKEright, String Functions and Operatorsright join, Joined Tablesrole, Database Roles, Role Membership, Predefined Rolesapplicable, applicable_rolesenabled, enabled_rolesmembership in, Role Membershipprivilege to create, Role Attributesprivilege to initiate replication, Role AttributesROLLBACK, ROLLBACKrollbackpsql, VariablesROLLBACK PREPARED, ROLLBACK PREPAREDROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT, ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINTROLLUP, GROUPING SETS, CUBE, and ROLLUPround, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsroutine, User-Defined Proceduresroutine maintenance, Routine Database Maintenance Tasksrow, Concepts, Table BasicsROW, Row Constructorsrow estimation, Row Estimation Examplesmultivariate, Multivariate Statistics Examplesplanner, Row Estimation Examplesrow type, Composite Typesconstructor, Row Constructorsrow-level security, Row Security Policiesrow-wise comparison, Row and Array Comparisonsrow_number, Window Functionsrow_security configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorrow_security_active, System Information Functions and Operatorsrow_to_json, Processing and Creating JSON Datarpad, String Functions and Operatorsrtrim, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and Operatorsrule, The Rule System, Views and the Rule System, How SELECT Rules Work, Materialized Views, Rules on INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE, Rules on INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE, Rules on INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE, Rules Versus Triggersand materialized views, Materialized Viewsand views, Views and the Rule Systemfor DELETE, Rules on INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETEfor INSERT, Rules on INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETEfor SELECT, How SELECT Rules Workcompared with triggers, Rules Versus Triggersfor UPDATE, Rules on INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE

# S

SAVEPOINT, SAVEPOINTsavepoints, RELEASE SAVEPOINT, ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT, SAVEPOINTdefining, SAVEPOINTreleasing, RELEASE SAVEPOINTrolling back, ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINTscalar (see expression)scale, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsschema, Schemas, Creating a Schema, The Public Schema, Overviewcreating, Creating a Schemacurrent, The Schema Search Path, System Information Functions and Operatorspublic, The Public Schemaremoving, Creating a SchemaSCRAM, Password Authenticationsearch path, The Schema Search Pathcurrent, System Information Functions and Operatorsobject visibility, System Information Functions and Operatorssearch_path configuration parameter, The Schema Search Path, Statement Behavioruse in securing functions, Writing SECURITY DEFINER Functions SafelySECURITY LABEL, SECURITY LABELsec_to_gc, Cube-Based Earth Distancesseg, segsegment_size configuration parameter, Preset OptionsSELECT, Querying a Table, Queries, SELECT Output Columns, SELECTdetermination of result type, SELECT Output Columnsselect list, Select ListsSELECT INTO, Executing a Command with a Single-Row Result, SELECT INTOin PL/pgSQL, Executing a Command with a Single-Row Resultsemaphores, Shared Memory and Semaphoressepgsql, sepgsqlsepgsql.debug_audit configuration parameter, GUC Parameterssepgsql.permissive configuration parameter, GUC Parameterssequence, Sequence Manipulation Functionsand serial type, Serial Typessequential scan, Planner Method Configurationseq_page_cost configuration parameter, Planner Cost Constantsserial, Serial Typesserial2, Serial Typesserial4, Serial Typesserial8, Serial Typesserializable, Serializable Isolation LevelSerializable Snapshot Isolation, Introductionserialization anomaly, Transaction Isolation, Serializable Isolation Levelserver log, Error Reporting and Logging, Log File Maintenancelog file maintenance, Log File MaintenanceServer Name Indication, Parameter Key Wordsserver spoofing, Preventing Server Spoofingserver_encoding configuration parameter, Preset Optionsserver_version configuration parameter, Preset Optionsserver_version_num configuration parameter, Preset Optionssession_preload_libraries configuration parameter, Shared Library Preloadingsession_replication_role configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorsession_user, System Information Functions and OperatorsSET, Configuration Settings Functions, SETSET CONSTRAINTS, SET CONSTRAINTSset difference, Combining Queries (UNION, INTERSECT, EXCEPT)set intersection, Combining Queries (UNION, INTERSECT, EXCEPT)set operation, Combining Queries (UNION, INTERSECT, EXCEPT)set returning functions, Set Returning Functionsfunctions, Set Returning FunctionsSET ROLE, SET ROLESET SESSION AUTHORIZATION, SET SESSION AUTHORIZATIONSET TRANSACTION, SET TRANSACTIONset union, Combining Queries (UNION, INTERSECT, EXCEPT)SET XML OPTION, Statement Behaviorsetseed, Mathematical Functions and Operatorssetval, Sequence Manipulation Functionssetweight, Text Search Functions and Operators, Manipulating Documentssetweight for specific lexeme(s), Text Search Functions and Operatorsset_bit, Binary String Functions and Operators, Bit String Functions and Operatorsset_byte, Binary String Functions and Operatorsset_config, Configuration Settings Functionsset_limit, Functions and Operatorsset_masklen, Network Address Functions and Operatorssha224, Binary String Functions and Operatorssha256, Binary String Functions and Operatorssha384, Binary String Functions and Operatorssha512, Binary String Functions and Operatorsshared library, Shared Libraries, Compiling and Linking Dynamically-Loaded Functionsshared memory, Shared Memory and Semaphoresshared_buffers configuration parameter, Memoryshared_memory_type configuration parameter, Memoryshared_preload_libraries, Shared Memory and LWLocksshared_preload_libraries configuration parameter, Shared Library Preloadingshobj_description, System Information Functions and OperatorsSHOW, Configuration Settings Functions, SHOW, Streaming Replication Protocolshow_limit, Functions and Operatorsshow_trgm, Functions and Operatorsshutdown, Shutting Down the ServerSIGHUP, Parameter Interaction via the Configuration File, The pg_hba.conf File, User Name MapsSIGINT, Shutting Down the Serversign, Mathematical Functions and Operatorssignalbackend processes, Server Signaling Functionssignificant digits, Locale and FormattingSIGQUIT, Shutting Down the ServerSIGTERM, Shutting Down the ServerSIMILAR TO, SIMILAR TO Regular Expressionssimilarity, Functions and Operatorssin, Mathematical Functions and Operatorssind, Mathematical Functions and Operatorssingle-user mode, Options for Single-User Modesinh, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsskeys, hstore Operators and Functionssleep, Delaying Executionslice, hstore Operators and Functionssliced bread (see TOAST)slope, Geometric Functions and OperatorsSLRU, pg_stat_slrusmallint, Integer Typessmallserial, Serial TypesSolaris, Solarisinstallation on, Solarisshared library, Compiling and Linking Dynamically-Loaded Functionsstart script, Starting the Database ServerSOME, Aggregate Functions, Subquery Expressions, Row and Array Comparisonssort, intarray Functions and Operatorssorting, Sorting Rows (ORDER BY)sort_asc, intarray Functions and Operatorssort_desc, intarray Functions and Operatorssoundex, SoundexSP-GiST (see index)SPI, Server Programming Interface, spiexamples, spispi_commitin PL/Perl, Database Access from PL/PerlSPI_commit, SPI_commitSPI_commit_and_chain, SPI_commitSPI_connect, SPI_connectSPI_connect_ext, SPI_connectSPI_copytuple, SPI_copytuplespi_cursor_closein PL/Perl, Database Access from PL/PerlSPI_cursor_close, SPI_cursor_closeSPI_cursor_fetch, SPI_cursor_fetchSPI_cursor_find, SPI_cursor_findSPI_cursor_move, SPI_cursor_moveSPI_cursor_open, SPI_cursor_openSPI_cursor_open_with_args, SPI_cursor_open_with_argsSPI_cursor_open_with_paramlist, SPI_cursor_open_with_paramlistSPI_cursor_parse_open, SPI_cursor_parse_openSPI_exec, SPI_execSPI_execp, SPI_execpSPI_execute, SPI_executeSPI_execute_extended, SPI_execute_extendedSPI_execute_plan, SPI_execute_planSPI_execute_plan_extended, SPI_execute_plan_extendedSPI_execute_plan_with_paramlist, SPI_execute_plan_with_paramlistSPI_execute_with_args, SPI_execute_with_argsspi_exec_preparedin PL/Perl, Database Access from PL/Perlspi_exec_queryin PL/Perl, Database Access from PL/Perlspi_fetchrowin PL/Perl, Database Access from PL/PerlSPI_finish, SPI_finishSPI_fname, SPI_fnameSPI_fnumber, SPI_fnumberspi_freeplanin PL/Perl, Database Access from PL/PerlSPI_freeplan, SPI_freeplanSPI_freetuple, SPI_freetupleSPI_freetuptable, SPI_freetuptableSPI_getargcount, SPI_getargcountSPI_getargtypeid, SPI_getargtypeidSPI_getbinval, SPI_getbinvalSPI_getnspname, SPI_getnspnameSPI_getrelname, SPI_getrelnameSPI_gettype, SPI_gettypeSPI_gettypeid, SPI_gettypeidSPI_getvalue, SPI_getvalueSPI_is_cursor_plan, SPI_is_cursor_planSPI_keepplan, SPI_keepplanSPI_modifytuple, SPI_modifytupleSPI_palloc, SPI_pallocSPI_pfree, SPI_pfreespi_preparein PL/Perl, Database Access from PL/PerlSPI_prepare, SPI_prepareSPI_prepare_cursor, SPI_prepare_cursorSPI_prepare_extended, SPI_prepare_extendedSPI_prepare_params, SPI_prepare_paramsspi_queryin PL/Perl, Database Access from PL/Perlspi_query_preparedin PL/Perl, Database Access from PL/PerlSPI_register_relation, SPI_register_relationSPI_register_trigger_data, SPI_register_trigger_dataSPI_repalloc, SPI_repallocSPI_result_code_string, SPI_result_code_stringSPI_returntuple, SPI_returntuplespi_rollbackin PL/Perl, Database Access from PL/PerlSPI_rollback, SPI_rollbackSPI_rollback_and_chain, SPI_rollbackSPI_saveplan, SPI_saveplanSPI_scroll_cursor_fetch, SPI_scroll_cursor_fetchSPI_scroll_cursor_move, SPI_scroll_cursor_moveSPI_start_transaction, SPI_start_transactionSPI_unregister_relation, SPI_unregister_relationsplit_part, String Functions and OperatorsSQL/CLI, SQL ConformanceSQL/Foundation, SQL ConformanceSQL/Framework, SQL ConformanceSQL/JRT, SQL ConformanceSQL/JSON path language, The SQL/JSON Path LanguageSQL/MDA, SQL ConformanceSQL/MED, SQL ConformanceSQL/OLB, SQL ConformanceSQL/PSM, SQL ConformanceSQL/Schemata, SQL ConformanceSQL/XML, SQL Conformancelimits and conformance, XML Limits and Conformance to SQL/XMLsqrt, Mathematical Functions and Operatorsssh, Secure TCP/IP Connections with SSH TunnelsSSI, IntroductionSSL, Secure TCP/IP Connections with SSL, SSL Supportin libpq, Connection Status Functionswith libpq, Parameter Key Wordsssl configuration parameter, SSLsslinfo, sslinfossl_ca_file configuration parameter, SSLssl_cert_file configuration parameter, SSLssl_cipher, Functions Providedssl_ciphers configuration parameter, SSLssl_client_cert_present, Functions Providedssl_client_dn, Functions Providedssl_client_dn_field, Functions Providedssl_client_serial, Functions Providedssl_crl_dir configuration parameter, SSLssl_crl_file configuration parameter, SSLssl_dh_params_file configuration parameter, SSLssl_ecdh_curve configuration parameter, SSLssl_extension_info, Functions Providedssl_issuer_dn, Functions Providedssl_issuer_field, Functions Providedssl_is_used, Functions Providedssl_key_file configuration parameter, SSLssl_library configuration parameter, Preset Optionsssl_max_protocol_version configuration parameter, SSLssl_min_protocol_version configuration parameter, SSLssl_passphrase_command configuration parameter, SSLssl_passphrase_command_supports_reload configuration parameter, SSLssl_prefer_server_ciphers configuration parameter, SSLssl_version, Functions ProvidedSSPI, SSPI AuthenticationSTABLE, Function Volatility Categoriesstandard deviation, Aggregate Functionspopulation, Aggregate Functionssample, Aggregate Functionsstandard_conforming_strings configuration parameter, Previous PostgreSQL Versionsstandby server, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationstandby.signal, Archive Recovery, Standby Server Operation, Setting Up a Standby Serverfor hot standby, Administrator's Overviewpg_basebackup --write-recovery-conf, Optionsstandby_mode (see standby.signal)START TRANSACTION, START TRANSACTIONstarts_with, String Functions and OperatorsSTART_REPLICATION, Streaming Replication Protocolstatement_timeout configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorstatement_timestamp, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsstatistics, Aggregate Functions, Statistics Used by the Planner, Extended Statistics, Updating Planner Statistics, The Statistics Collectorof the planner, Statistics Used by the Planner, Extended Statistics, Updating Planner Statisticsstats_temp_directory configuration parameter, Query and Index Statistics Collectorstddev, Aggregate Functionsstddev_pop, Aggregate Functionsstddev_samp, Aggregate FunctionsSTONITH, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationstorage parameters, Storage ParametersStreaming Replication, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationstrict_word_similarity, Functions and Operatorsstring (see character string)stringsbackslash quotes, Previous PostgreSQL Versionsescape warning, Previous PostgreSQL Versionsstandard conforming, Previous PostgreSQL Versionsstring_agg, Aggregate Functionsstring_to_array, String Functions and Operatorsstring_to_table, String Functions and Operatorsstrip, Text Search Functions and Operators, Manipulating Documentsstrpos, String Functions and Operatorssubarray, intarray Functions and Operatorssubltree, Operators and Functionssubpath, Operators and Functionssubquery, Aggregate Functions, Scalar Subqueries, Subqueries, Subquery Expressionssubscript, Subscriptssubstr, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and Operatorssubstring, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and Operators, Bit String Functions and Operators, SIMILAR TO Regular Expressions, POSIX Regular Expressionssubtransactionsin PL/Tcl, Explicit Subtransactions in PL/Tclsum, Aggregate Functionssuperuser, Accessing a Database, Role Attributessuperuser_reserved_connections configuration parameter, Connection Settingssupport functionsin_range, B-Tree Support Functionssuppress_redundant_updates_trigger, Trigger Functionssvals, hstore Operators and Functionssynchronize_seqscans configuration parameter, Previous PostgreSQL Versionssynchronous commit, Asynchronous CommitSynchronous Replication, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationsynchronous_commit configuration parameter, Settingssynchronous_standby_names configuration parameter, Primary Serversyntax, SQL SyntaxSQL, SQL Syntaxsyslog_facility configuration parameter, Where to Logsyslog_ident configuration parameter, Where to Logsyslog_sequence_numbers configuration parameter, Where to Logsyslog_split_messages configuration parameter, Where to Logsystem catalog, The System Catalog Schemaschema, The System Catalog Schemasystemd, PostgreSQL Features, Starting the Database ServerRemoveIPC, systemd RemoveIPC

# T

table, Concepts, Table Basics, Modifying Tablescreating, Table Basicsinheritance, Inheritancemodifying, Modifying Tablespartitioning, Table Partitioningremoving, Table Basicsrenaming, Renaming a TableTable Access Method, Table Access Method Interface DefinitionTABLE command, SELECTtable expression, Table Expressionstable function, Table Functions, xmltableXMLTABLE, xmltabletable sampling method, Writing a Table Sampling MethodtableamTable Access Method, Table Access Method Interface Definitiontablefunc, tablefunctableoid, System ColumnsTABLESAMPLE method, Writing a Table Sampling Methodtablespace, Tablespacesdefault, Statement Behaviortemporary, Statement Behaviortable_am_handler, Pseudo-Typestan, Mathematical Functions and Operatorstand, Mathematical Functions and Operatorstanh, Mathematical Functions and Operatorstarget list, The Query TreeTcl, PL/Tcl — Tcl Procedural Languagetcn, tcntcp_keepalives_count configuration parameter, Connection Settingstcp_keepalives_idle configuration parameter, Connection Settingstcp_keepalives_interval configuration parameter, Connection Settingstcp_user_timeout configuration parameter, Connection Settingstemplate0, Template Databasestemplate1, Creating a Database, Template Databasestemp_buffers configuration parameter, Memorytemp_file_limit configuration parameter, Disktemp_tablespaces configuration parameter, Statement Behaviortest, Regression Teststest_decoding, test_decodingtext, Character Types, Network Address Functions and Operatorstext search, Text Search Types, Text Search Types, Full Text Search, GIN and GiST Index Typesdata types, Text Search Typesfunctions and operators, Text Search Typesindexes, GIN and GiST Index Typestext2ltree, Operators and Functionsthreads, Behavior in Threaded Programswith libpq, Behavior in Threaded Programstid, Object Identifier Typestime, Date/Time Types, Timesconstants, Special Valuescurrent, Current Date/Timeoutput format, Date/Time Output(see also formatting)time span, Date/Time Typestime with time zone, Date/Time Types, Timestime without time zone, Date/Time Types, Timestime zone, Time Zones, Locale and Formatting, POSIX Time Zone Specificationsconversion, AT TIME ZONEinput abbreviations, Date/Time Configuration FilesPOSIX-style specification, POSIX Time Zone Specificationstime zone data, Build Process Detailstime zone names, Locale and Formattingtimelines, Backup and RestoreTIMELINE_HISTORY, Streaming Replication Protocoltimeofday, Date/Time Functions and Operatorstimeoutclient authentication, Authenticationdeadlock, Lock Managementtimestamp, Date/Time Types, Time Stampstimestamp with time zone, Date/Time Types, Time Stampstimestamp without time zone, Date/Time Types, Time Stampstimestamptz, Date/Time TypesTimeZone configuration parameter, Locale and Formattingtimezone_abbreviations configuration parameter, Locale and FormattingTOAST, TOASTand user-defined types, TOAST Considerationsper-column storage settings, Descriptionper-type storage settings, Descriptionversus large objects, Introductiontoast_tuple_target storage parameter, Storage Parameterstoken, Lexical Structureto_ascii, String Functions and Operatorsto_char, Data Type Formatting Functionsand locales, Behaviorto_date, Data Type Formatting Functionsto_hex, String Functions and Operatorsto_json, Processing and Creating JSON Datato_jsonb, Processing and Creating JSON Datato_number, Data Type Formatting Functionsto_regclass, System Information Functions and Operatorsto_regcollation, System Information Functions and Operatorsto_regnamespace, System Information Functions and Operatorsto_regoper, System Information Functions and Operatorsto_regoperator, System Information Functions and Operatorsto_regproc, System Information Functions and Operatorsto_regprocedure, System Information Functions and Operatorsto_regrole, System Information Functions and Operatorsto_regtype, System Information Functions and Operatorsto_timestamp, Data Type Formatting Functions, Date/Time Functions and Operatorsto_tsquery, Text Search Functions and Operators, Parsing Queriesto_tsvector, Text Search Functions and Operators, Parsing Documentstrace_locks configuration parameter, Developer Optionstrace_lock_oidmin configuration parameter, Developer Optionstrace_lock_table configuration parameter, Developer Optionstrace_lwlocks configuration parameter, Developer Optionstrace_notify configuration parameter, Developer Optionstrace_recovery_messages configuration parameter, Developer Optionstrace_sort configuration parameter, Developer Optionstrace_userlocks configuration parameter, Developer Optionstrack_activities configuration parameter, Query and Index Statistics Collectortrack_activity_query_size configuration parameter, Query and Index Statistics Collectortrack_commit_timestamp configuration parameter, Sending Serverstrack_counts configuration parameter, Query and Index Statistics Collectortrack_functions configuration parameter, Query and Index Statistics Collectortrack_io_timing configuration parameter, Query and Index Statistics Collectortrack_wal_io_timing configuration parameter, Query and Index Statistics Collectortransaction, Transactionstransaction ID, Preventing Transaction ID Wraparound Failureswraparound, Preventing Transaction ID Wraparound Failurestransaction isolation, Transaction Isolationtransaction isolation level, Transaction Isolation, Statement Behaviorread committed, Read Committed Isolation Levelrepeatable read, Repeatable Read Isolation Levelserializable, Serializable Isolation Levelsetting, SET TRANSACTIONsetting default, Statement Behaviortransaction log (see WAL)transaction_deferrable configuration parameter, Statement Behaviortransaction_isolation configuration parameter, Statement Behaviortransaction_read_only configuration parameter, Statement Behaviortransaction_timestamp, Date/Time Functions and Operatorstransform_null_equals configuration parameter, Platform and Client Compatibilitytransition tables, CREATE TRIGGER(see also ephemeral named relation)implementation in PLs, SPI_register_trigger_datareferencing from C trigger, Writing Trigger Functions in Ctranslate, String Functions and Operatorstransparent huge pages, Memorytrigger, Pseudo-Types, Triggers, Writing Trigger Functions in C, Rules Versus Triggers, Trigger Functions, Trigger Functionsarguments for trigger functions, Overview of Trigger Behaviorconstraint trigger, Descriptionfor updating a derived tsvector column, Triggers for Automatic Updatesin C, Writing Trigger Functions in Cin PL/pgSQL, Trigger Functionsin PL/Python, Trigger Functionsin PL/Tcl, Trigger Functions in PL/Tclcompared with rules, Rules Versus Triggerstriggered_change_notification, tcntrigger_file (see promote_trigger_file)trim, String Functions and Operators, Binary String Functions and Operatorstrim_array, Array Functions and Operatorstrim_scale, Mathematical Functions and Operatorstrue, Boolean Typetrunc, Mathematical Functions and Operators, Network Address Functions and OperatorsTRUNCATE, TRUNCATEtrusted, Trusted and Untrusted PL/PerlPL/Perl, Trusted and Untrusted PL/Perltsm_handler, Pseudo-Typestsm_system_rows, tsm_system_rowstsm_system_time, tsm_system_timetsquery (data type), tsquerytsquery_phrase, Text Search Functions and Operators, Manipulating Queriestsvector (data type), tsvectortsvector concatenation, Manipulating Documentstsvector_to_array, Text Search Functions and Operatorstsvector_update_trigger, Trigger Functionstsvector_update_trigger_column, Trigger Functionsts_debug, Text Search Functions and Operators, Configuration Testingts_delete, Text Search Functions and Operatorsts_filter, Text Search Functions and Operatorsts_headline, Text Search Functions and Operators, Highlighting Resultsts_lexize, Text Search Functions and Operators, Dictionary Testingts_parse, Text Search Functions and Operators, Parser Testingts_rank, Text Search Functions and Operators, Ranking Search Resultsts_rank_cd, Text Search Functions and Operators, Ranking Search Resultsts_rewrite, Text Search Functions and Operators, Query Rewritingts_stat, Text Search Functions and Operators, Gathering Document Statisticsts_token_type, Text Search Functions and Operators, Parser Testingtuple_data_split, Heap Functionstxid_current, System Information Functions and Operatorstxid_current_if_assigned, System Information Functions and Operatorstxid_current_snapshot, System Information Functions and Operatorstxid_snapshot_xip, System Information Functions and Operatorstxid_snapshot_xmax, System Information Functions and Operatorstxid_snapshot_xmin, System Information Functions and Operatorstxid_status, System Information Functions and Operatorstxid_visible_in_snapshot, System Information Functions and Operatorstype (see data type)type cast, Numeric Constants, Type Casts

# U

UESCAPE, Identifiers and Key Words, String Constants with Unicode Escapesunaccent, unaccent, FunctionsUnicode escape, String Constants with Unicode Escapesin identifiers, Identifiers and Key Wordsin string constants, String Constants with Unicode EscapesUnicode normalization, String Functions and OperatorsUNION, Combining Queries (UNION, INTERSECT, EXCEPT), UNION, CASE, and Related Constructsdetermination of result type, UNION, CASE, and Related Constructsuniq, intarray Functions and Operatorsunique constraint, Unique Constraintsunistr, String Functions and OperatorsUnix domain socket, Parameter Key Wordsunix_socket_directories configuration parameter, Connection Settingsunix_socket_group configuration parameter, Connection Settingsunix_socket_permissions configuration parameter, Connection Settingsunknown, Pseudo-TypesUNLISTEN, UNLISTENunnest, Array Functions and Operatorsfor multirange, Range/Multirange Functions and Operatorsfor tsvector, Text Search Functions and Operatorsunqualified name, The Schema Search Pathupdatable views, Updatable ViewsUPDATE, Updates, Updating Data, Returning Data from Modified Rows, UPDATERETURNING, Returning Data from Modified Rowsupdate_process_title configuration parameter, Process Titleupdating, Updating Dataupgrading, Upgrading a PostgreSQL Clusterupper, String Functions and Operators, Range/Multirange Functions and Operatorsand locales, Behaviorupper_inc, Range/Multirange Functions and Operatorsupper_inf, Range/Multirange Functions and OperatorsUPSERT, INSERTURI, Connection Stringsuser, System Information Functions and Operators, Database Rolescurrent, System Information Functions and Operatorsuser mapping, Foreign DataUser name maps, User Name Mapsuser_catalog_table storage parameter, Storage ParametersUUID, UUID Type, UUID Type, PostgreSQL Featuresgenerating, UUID Typeuuid-ossp, uuid-osspuuid_generate_v1, uuid-ossp Functionsuuid_generate_v1mc, uuid-ossp Functionsuuid_generate_v3, uuid-ossp Functions

# V

vacuum, Routine VacuumingVACUUM, VACUUMvacuumdb, vacuumdbvacuumlo, vacuumlovacuum_cost_delay configuration parameter, Cost-based Vacuum Delayvacuum_cost_limit configuration parameter, Cost-based Vacuum Delayvacuum_cost_page_dirty configuration parameter, Cost-based Vacuum Delayvacuum_cost_page_hit configuration parameter, Cost-based Vacuum Delayvacuum_cost_page_miss configuration parameter, Cost-based Vacuum Delayvacuum_defer_cleanup_age configuration parameter, Primary Servervacuum_failsafe_age configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorvacuum_freeze_min_age configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorvacuum_freeze_table_age configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorvacuum_index_cleanup storage parameter, Storage Parametersvacuum_multixact_failsafe_age configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorvacuum_multixact_freeze_min_age configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorvacuum_multixact_freeze_table_age configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorvacuum_truncate storage parameter, Storage Parametersvalue expression, Value ExpressionsVALUES, VALUES Lists, UNION, CASE, and Related Constructs, VALUESdetermination of result type, UNION, CASE, and Related Constructsvarchar, Character Typesvariadic function, SQL Functions with Variable Numbers of Argumentsvariance, Aggregate Functionspopulation, Aggregate Functionssample, Aggregate Functionsvar_pop, Aggregate Functionsvar_samp, Aggregate Functionsversion, Accessing a Database, System Information Functions and Operators, Upgrading a PostgreSQL Clustercompatibility, Upgrading a PostgreSQL Clusterview, Views, Views and the Rule System, Materialized Views, Cooperation with Viewsimplementation through rules, Views and the Rule Systemmaterialized, Materialized Viewsupdating, Cooperation with ViewsVisibility Map, Visibility MapVM (see Visibility Map)void, Pseudo-TypesVOLATILE, Function Volatility Categoriesvolatility, Function Volatility Categoriesfunctions, Function Volatility CategoriesVPATH, Installation Procedure, Extension Building Infrastructure

# W

WAL, Reliability and the Write-Ahead Logwal_block_size configuration parameter, Preset Optionswal_buffers configuration parameter, Settingswal_compression configuration parameter, Settingswal_consistency_checking configuration parameter, Developer Optionswal_debug configuration parameter, Developer Optionswal_init_zero configuration parameter, Settingswal_keep_size configuration parameter, Sending Serverswal_level configuration parameter, Settingswal_log_hints configuration parameter, Settingswal_receiver_create_temp_slot configuration parameter, Standby Serverswal_receiver_status_interval configuration parameter, Standby Serverswal_receiver_timeout configuration parameter, Standby Serverswal_recycle configuration parameter, Settingswal_retrieve_retry_interval configuration parameter, Standby Serverswal_segment_size configuration parameter, Preset Optionswal_sender_timeout configuration parameter, Sending Serverswal_skip_threshold configuration parameter, Settingswal_sync_method configuration parameter, Settingswal_writer_delay configuration parameter, Settingswal_writer_flush_after configuration parameter, Settingswarm standby, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationwebsearch_to_tsquery, Text Search Functions and OperatorsWHERE, The WHERE Clausewhere to log, Where to LogWHILEin PL/pgSQL, WHILEwidth, Geometric Functions and Operatorswidth_bucket, Mathematical Functions and Operatorswindow function, Window Functions, Window Function Calls, Window Function Processing, Window Functionsbuilt-in, Window Functionsinvocation, Window Function Callsorder of execution, Window Function ProcessingWITH, WITH Queries (Common Table Expressions), SELECTin SELECT, WITH Queries (Common Table Expressions), SELECTWITH CHECK OPTION, CREATE VIEWWITHIN GROUP, Aggregate Expressionswitness server, High Availability, Load Balancing, and Replicationword_similarity, Functions and Operatorswork_mem configuration parameter, Memorywraparoundof multixact IDs, Multixacts and Wraparoundof transaction IDs, Preventing Transaction ID Wraparound Failures

# X

xid, Object Identifier Typesxid8, Object Identifier Typesxmax, System Columnsxmin, System ColumnsXML, XML TypeXML export, Mapping Tables to XMLXML Functions, XML FunctionsXML option, Creating XML Values, Statement Behaviorxml2, xml2xmlagg, xmlagg, Aggregate Functionsxmlbinary configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorxmlcomment, xmlcommentxmlconcat, xmlconcatxmlelement, xmlelementXMLEXISTS, XMLEXISTSxmlforest, xmlforestxmloption configuration parameter, Statement Behaviorxmlparse, Creating XML Valuesxmlpi, xmlpixmlroot, xmlrootxmlserialize, Creating XML Valuesxmltable, xmltablexml_is_well_formed, xml_is_well_formedxml_is_well_formed_content, xml_is_well_formedxml_is_well_formed_document, xml_is_well_formedXPath, xpathxpath_exists, xpath_existsxpath_table, xpath_tableXQuery regular expressions, Differences from XQuery (LIKE_REGEX)xslt_process, xslt_process

# Y

yacc, Requirements

# Z

zero_damaged_pages configuration parameter, Developer Optionszlib, Requirements, Anti-Features